In America in the 1650s, the population of Chesapeake was increasing by the birthrate. To make profit, Chesapeake produced large quality of tobacco. Colonial masters first adopted the institution of indentured servitude rather than slavery for labor; African slaves were very expensive and indentured servants needed employment. African slavery soon replaced indentured servants from Bacon’s rebellion and less trouble that they caused. Tobacco was very important to the economy; Europeans would buy slaves to work the fields.
Slavery first began on the shorelines of Africa. Africans were very poor and could hardly get food. Europeans began to capture Africans and shipped them to America. Out of the 11 million African men, women, and children that were sent to the New World like common cargo, 2 million of them died. Africans were treated badly that Europeans whipped and put Africans in handcuffs to transport them. The Africans that survived were sent to work in sugar cane fields and other produce fields that Europeans thrived for like sugar, tobacco, cotton and other New World products. Many Africans and people from Europe realized that people like Europeans needed slaves and would pay anything for them. Soon after realizing, Africans began to sell their own for high amounts of money and so did Europe.
Since African slaves were very expensive and the European economy was low, the Europeans had to look for different kinds of slaves. The Europeans needed slaves for planting corn and especially tobacco. By the 1630s, 1.5 million pounds of tobacco were sent out of Chesapeake Bay and almost 40 million pounds a year by the 1700s. Desperate for employment, Europeans were shipped to America. These people were called indentured servants; they voluntarily worked for Chesapeake masters for freedom dues. Freedom dues contained an ax, hoe, and barrels of corn, suit clothes, and even a small parcel of land. Many indentured servants liked this idea but they were also controlled by a landlord.
Landlords called masters benefited from the head right system in Virginia and Maryland. In the head right system, masters received fifty acres of land if they paid the passage of a labor or indentured servants. More masters became great merchant-planters with big estates causing land to become scarce. Masters began to not agree on freedom dues and on land grants. The...