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This Is An Essay About Tuner's Syndrome A Genetically Transferred Disease

597 words - 2 pages

In 1938 Dr. Henry Turner, an internist at theUniversity of Oklahoma, described what is now calledTurner's syndrome. Turner's syndrome is a relativelycommon genetic disorder found in females affecting manybody systems. Although this disorder was described in1938, it was not until 1959 that the technology wasavailable to determine the cause of this disorder.Humans normally have a total of 46 chromosomes (whichare tiny, DNA-containing elements) that are present inevery cell of the body. DNA encodes genes, which specifyall the proteins that make up the body and control itsfunctions. There are 23 matched pairs of chromosomes inevery cell. Each cell contains 22 pairs of chromosomescalled autosomes that are the same in males and females.The remaining pair of chromosomes, the X- and Y-chromosomes, are not shaped similarly, and thus are notmatched in the same way as the autosomes. The X- and Y-chromosomes are called sex chromosomes. They areresponsible for the difference in development between malesand females. A Y-chromosome contains genes responsible fortestis development; and the presence of an X-chromosomepaired with a Y-chromosome will determine male development.A female with normal genetic make-up has two X-chromosomesin each of her cells, one which she received from herfather and one, which she received from her mother. Two X-chromosomes are required for normal ovarian development infemalesThe female with Turner's syndrome has only one X-chromosome in each of her cells due to a nondisjunctionevent during meiosis of her parents' gametes. A carefulexamination of the genetic material, usually by means of ablood sample, can confirm the diagnosis of Turner'sSyndrome. Depending on the degree of nondisjunction of herparents' gametes, the genotype of Turner Syndrome canvary. The majority of patients with only one X-chromosomein all of their cells are distinguished as XO.(turners.nichd.nih.gov)The type and amount of missing genetic materialinfluences which specific organ abnormalities are found, aswell as the person's potential for growth. Several sexchromosome...

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