Schizophrenia is a very complex mental disorder that affects approximately 51 million people, with more being diagnosed daily. [footnoteRef:1] The disorder can cause hallucinations, paranoia or bizarre delusions and disorganized thought or speech pattern. People with schizophrenia often have other mental disorders. It is also still being researched, to discover new information about how it can be treated, and how to stop it from happening in the first place. There are many different theories about different causes of schizophrenia, and this makes it harder to come up with a universal cause that would really help in the long run. There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, and a patient must display a certain number of characteristics, to be diagnosed as a schizophrenic. Depending on the type of schizophrenia displayed, a patient can potentially receive a very specific treatment aimed directly at their specific type of schizophrenia, but that comes at a cost to other people who end up not even being properly diagnosed in the first place to ever receive treatment. The complexity of the disorder makes it difficult to be realized in some cases.[footnoteRef:2] [1: "Schizophrenia Facts and Statistics." Schizophrenia Facts and Statistics. N.p., n.d. Web. 2017.] [2: Gochman, Peter, Rachel Miller, and Judith L. Rapoport. "Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: The Challenge of Diagnosis." Current Psychiatry Reports. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2011. Web. 2017.]
The reason extensive research is still being done today is because we want to better understand this psychological disorder and detect it as early as possible, and also to be able to properly treat anyone who receives their diagnosis. With most other disorders, we have enough understanding to properly tackle it and reduce the number of diagnosis a year, ultimately lowering the percent of the population that has schizophrenia. From what we do know, schizophrenia is not just the outcome of nurture, but more a combination of nature and nurture. We already know that for the whole population, about 1% is affected, but that value increases to 6.5% for first-degree relatives of the patient, and then all the way up to 50% for identical twins.[footnoteRef:3] From this, we know schizophrenia must be linked to DNA. Neurological issues such as decreased levels of GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid, a neurotransmitter that sends chemical messages through the brain and the nervous system, and is involved in regulating communication between brain cells) as we see in the study by the Karolinska Schizophrenia Project, or increased levels of dopamine are also contributing factors. [3: Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi, Deep Shikha, and Shivendra Shekhar. "Schizophrenia in Identical Twins." Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd, 2015. Web. 2017.]
As discussed, the main reason for research is because to develop a proper treatment and prevention regime, we...