Theories of Personality
Individuals have different behaviors depending on how they feel, think, want, or what they do because these things change from moment to moment. This paper will be writing about personality and how this can be influence by different factors. The writer will explain how personality can be in a child learning environment and influential adults in life and how these influences shape those behaviors. These changes show how the personality is and help to recognize, and understand the individual.
“Personality is an abstraction used to explain consistency and coherency in an individuals’ pattern of affects, cognitions, desires and behaviors” (Revelle, n.d).According to Feist and Feist,”personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior. Traits contribute to individual differences in behavior, consistency of behavior over time, and stability of behavior across situations. Characteristics are unique qualities of an individual; these characteristics include temperament, physique, and intelligence” (Feist and Feist, 2009).
Theoretical Approaches in the Study of Personality
Sigmund Freud was one who developed his theory in the modern psychology. Psychoanalytic was his theory and consists on the human psyche. The id, the ego and the superego were the beginning basics. The scientists who continued with this investigation were Erich Fromm, Carl Jung, and Erik Erikson. Another theory is Phenomenological. It says that people are inclined toward goodness and fulfilling ones potential. Abraham Maslow was the scientist who reviewed this theory. Behaviorist, another theory says that personality is when the individual interacts with the environment. This theory observes and measures the behavior of the individual. It does not accept theories that take the feelings of the individual or his internal thoughts into consideration. This theory was developed by B. F. Skinner. The Social Cognitive theory is about the human behavior; the internal and the external. Observational Learning is a theory oppositional to the Behaviorist Theory. This theory indicates that learning takes place through observation. The observation can be made through many different avenues; such as books, television, listening to stories, etc. Even if the information is not immediately used, it is internalized and may be used at any time.
Factors that Influence an Individual’s Personality Development
Each individual’s personality development can be affected by many factors within his lifetime. Biological processes, intrapersonal conflicts as unconscious and conscious, or even social forces can be part of these factors. These influences help shape and mold the personality throughout time; not overnight. One of the biological influences can be the birth order. It is often seen that the first born child is bossy and tends to be more responsible, while...