Thomas Jefferson is remembered in history not only for the offices he held, but also for his belief in the natural rights of man as expressed in the Declaration of Independence and his faith in the people’s ability to govern themselves. Through his political career, Thomas Jefferson advocated democratic principles and adhered to his liberal ideology. However, as a president he found it difficult to maintain these policies in the noisy arena of politics. Consequently, circumstances forced him to reverse himself in some degree on these concepts.
When he was voted into the presidency, Jefferson devoted a major section of his inaugural address to the "’the essential principles of our government, and consequently those which ought to shape it’s administration’" (Cunningham). Here he reiterated his basic political principles and the leading policies that he had professed as a candidate, which he now restated as the guiding pillars of his administration. He began by affirming "’equal and exact justice to all his men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political.’" Next, Jefferson proclaimed, "Peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none." He then went on to affirm his commitment to the rights of the states and the preservation of the central government. Continuing to intermingle general principles and specific policies, that new president declared that he favored reliance for defense on a "militia rather than an army, a small navy" (Cunningham) and prosperity through "economy, the payment of debts, and the encouragement of agriculture and commerce as its handmaid." He also emphasized basic rights such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and impartially selected juries. "These principles," Jefferson concluded, "form the brightest constellation, which has gone before us and guided our steps through an age of revolution and reformation… They should be the creed of our political faith, the text of civic instruction, the touchstone by which we try the services of those we trust." Unfortunately for Jefferson, marinating this creed would not be easy during this period of history.
Jefferson maintained his governing principles throughout the most part of his presidency. Most of them, however, were forced to be compromised. One of the first examples deals with the excise tax, a policy left by Hamilton. Jefferson strongly disliked this tax because "it bred bureaucrats and bore heavily on his farmer following" (Bailey, Kennedy, Cohen). By repealing this tax, Jefferson was forced to abandon his belief on paying debts, thus costing the federal government about a million dollars a year in urgently needed revenue.
Jefferson also had difficulty improving state rights and taking power from the federal government. As a result of the famous...