Identify and describe at least three of the most difficult issues facing health care in the U.S. today.
Williams & Torrens (2010) states the three most difficult issues facing health care in the United States are: decision making practices, administrative practices and financing practices in the health system (page 337). The first issue facing the United States health care is decision-making practices. In fact, the more that statutes, regulations, and court cases decide ethical issues, the narrower is the scope of ethical decision making by providers of health care (Grad, F.P., (1978), page 19-36). The scope of decision making by physicians and families is constrained (Williams & Torrens, page 336). For example, the conditions for terminating life support for persons in a persistent vegetative state are clearer, when the patient has an up-to-date living will (Williams & Torrens, page 336). The second most difficult facing the United States health care today is our administrative service practices. There were important procedural contributions make to resolve disputes by authorizing, establishing, and monitoring mechanisms or processes for handling disputes (Williams & Torrens, page 337). For example, Ombudsmen in the health care institutions are a means of providing patient representation and advocacy (Williams & Torrens, page 337). They serve as channels for expression for ethical concerns of patients and their families (Williams & Torrens, page 337). Lastly, financially issues cause difficultly in the United States health care system today. One of the highest ethical priorities in health care in the United States is the achievement of universal coverage of the population by health insurance (Williams & Torrens, page 337). While the health care system continues to deal with budget cuts, greater numbers of uninsured persons, and restructuring into managed care and integrated delivery systems, ethical questions loom large (Williams & Torrens, page 337). Perchance, their impact can be softened by ingenious and balanced strategies to finance, organize, and deliver health care in accordance with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice (Williams & Torrens, page 337).
Identify and describe three ways that technology impacts health care.
Technology is the driving force of health care (Williams & Torrens, page 362). William & Torrens describes it as the health care systems delivery mechanism for developing the nation’s biological research laboratories and clinical practices (page 362). The development, testing, and distribution of technological advances are fundamental to improving the nation’s health (Williams & Torrens, page 363). For example in Chapter One we discussed the development of health care technology by an industrial group. Health technologies can be seen to range from the simplest new variation on a previously standard medication to the development of an entirely new...