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Three Philosophies Of Human Rights Essay

2034 words - 9 pages

Essay Choice (1)
When choosing their social structures, one must decide whether for the rights of the people, social conditions or for sovereignty. Both Locke and Marx had similar views when it came down to the consent of the people. People want to be free and less oppressed by their superiors and thus anyone in the way would be a problem for their society. In Locke’s view it was the monarchs and aristocrats of the world as for Marx it was the bourgeoisie. The difference between Locke and Marx would be that that have a different conclusion about the nature of humans and the desires for the consenting public. Both of these viewpoints are in stark contrast with that of Machiavelli’s and his advocacy for imperialism. Marx could argue Locke’s position on human rights to be too utopian and would only drive the bourgeoisie to becoming more prosperous and thus further antagonizing the working man. The philosophies of human rights made by these three were all from different eras in time and their viewpoints definitely reflect this matter.
To start off, one should argue that differing viewpoints from Locke and Marx are somewhat similar and how they are both very in disagreement with the literature of Machiavelli. For Locke, humans have a natural right as humans to be free and that our decisions should be based off our own desires and “not to be under the legislative authority of man” (Locke, 17). As Locke puts it, the foundation of which man is appointed to be “evident in itself” and we have an “obligation to mutual love” (9). He would argue that there are certain natural agreements that should not be violated and protected prior to any mutual arrangement because we have the obligation to love ourselves and our freedom. Similarly Marx would argue that the people or the proletariat can and should act in the interest of the majority. Marx believes “the proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains” (Marx, 44) because “”political power… is merely the organized power of one class for oppressing another” (31). He believes the intrinsic human right for humans should not be tampered nor should the people be treated otherwise justly based on their quality of service. For Marx, work is work no matter how it is done and if one is treated specially for a more demanding position then it will create a class that would feel superior to the others. He answers the questions of skeptics by saying their “hard-won, self-acquired, self-earned property” is only the “groundwork of all personal freedom, activity and independence” (23). This would be a problem because as Marx would put it, as long as there is a more impoverished class or systems of hierarchy there will be conflict between the petty and the prominent. In other words, “society cannot live under the bourgeoisie” because they are killing the beliefs of ones self-rights and that “its existence is no longer compatible with society” (21). Machiavelli understands this and even points it out when he says that...

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