Three Type Of Cloning Essay

2885 words - 12 pages

Even though the cloning of humans is not yet being done, it has become a very heated topic of debate, principally because of its ethical and moral concerns. Since the successful cloning of a six-year old sheep in 1997, human cloning has moved very close to becoming a reality. Like in any other issue, there are arguments for and against human cloning. People argue that human cloning research would enable doctors to determine the cause of spontaneous abortion, give oncologists an understanding of the rapid cell growth of cancer, allow the use of stem cells to regenerate nerve tissues, and advance work on aging, genetics, and medicine (www.cs.virginia.edu). The strongest argument is that the medical risks and uncertainty associated with human cloning are far too great at the present time. There are also emotional risks and the risk of abuse of the technology.What is Cloning? Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. No two things are alike, unless you clone or you are a twin, only then the DNA will be the same. The term clone also refers to a genetically group of organisms that are identical. This is an asexual process of reproduction. The cell is developed only with one parent, versus the traditional two-parent reproduction cycle (http://www.chennaionline.com/science/cloning.asp). Organisms with a single cell are usually reproduced asexually. Organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and yeast are of single cells. They all have the same genetic make-up (http://www.chennaionline.com/science/cloning.asp).The History of Cloning Scientists have known that earthworms and starfish can clone just by dividing them into two pieces. Each of these invertebrates will re-grow into a complete organism. This process is by natural occurrence (http://www.chenaionline.com/schience/cloning.asp). Cloning has been around since the late 1970's. This process was called "artificial twinning," a process of a fertilized ovum (new embryo) then implanting them into a segregate mother. During the 80's and 90's, these experiments were restricted until the Clinton administration came into effect lifting the ban on private research (http://www.gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/cloning/whatiscloning). In 1994, Robert J. Stillman a research specialist from George Washington Medical Center in Washington D.C., announced that he was successful in splitting human embryos in producing clones. Guidelines were set by the National Institute of Health on this research. Restrictions were placed on preexisting embryos if they were being frozen or discarded. These restrictions were only relevant, if federal funding was received. Any other private funding would not receive the same restrictions (http://www.gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/cloning/whatiscloning). In 1997, President Clinton recommended to congress that they ban cloning on the creation of human babies. In 1998, Richard Seed a scientist announced that he...

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