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Thru Page 5 Essay

1568 words - 7 pages

Organized crime has been around throughout history and has changed definition multiple times. One definition, similar to that in use by many scholars, is the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) glossary definition which “defines organized crime as any group having some manner of a formalized structure and whose primary objective is to obtain money through illegal activities. Such groups maintain their position through the use of actual or threatened violence, corrupt public officials, graft, or extortion, and generally have a significant impact on the people in their locales, region, or the country as a whole.” This very broad topic encompasses everything from drug trafficking to most ...view middle of the document...

These groups all have the common trait of using advancements in information and communication technology for additional gain. The first group he identifies is the traditional organized criminal groups who use the Internet and other technologies to expand their reach. Second are the groups who exclusively exist on through cybercrime. Exclusively online cybercrime groups are set apart from traditional organized crime groups in the technical skill of their members. Members of these groups are highly technologically inclined and often use scholarly article to facilitate their criminal activity. Choo describes the members of these organizations as “just IT people who change their mind” (276). Finally he identifies, groups who utilize technology not for monetary gain but to advance their political or ideological criminal agendas. Most of these groups are hackers, but do include pedophile rings. Terrorism organizations that use technology would fall under this group. These groups use the Internet for facilitating existing criminal plans or even as a means of criminal activity. Like many other scholars, Choo points out the need for law enforcement adaptation and the problems that the changes of organized crime. One of these problems is a boundary and legislative issue as well as evidence collection. Choo supports his arguments with examples provided by arrest records and governmental reports along with other research. (Choo)
Also an important dynamic within organized crime groups is the hierarchy, or lack there of. “Researchers have concluded that the criminal organizations of the 21st century are characterized by a large degree of fluidity and structural complexity” (Chatterjee 2). The hierarchical statuses of criminal organizations can be split into five groups: “Standard hierarchy, Regional hierarchy, Clustered hierarchy, Core group, and Criminal network” (Chatterjee 2). According to Chatterjee, these groups were derived as a result of a 2002 survey conducted by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Some groups closely resemble the organization of corporations, such as the Colombian Cartels (Chatterjee). A common term throughout the literature has been globalization which Chatterjee attributes to ability of the groups to have such a fluid structure . “Transnational organized crime will proliferate in the next century because the crime groups are among the major beneficiaries of globalization” (qtd. in Chatterjee 8). Chatterjee while working upon the previous research as well as the United Nation’s 2002 survey examines what leads to the crime groups ability to change its structure as well as why it must change its structure. Since much of organized crime groups are operated within a network of sorts, Chatterjee contends that network analysis would be useful in combating these criminal groups. Like many others Chatterjee concludes that law enforcement and legislation need to have a greater focus on organized crime as well as transnational...

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