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Thyrod Hormone And Gland Essay

943 words - 4 pages

Thyroid hormones are Tyrosine based hormones that require triidothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4). These hormones are produced by the thyroid gland. The Thyroid gland is primarily known for the regulation of metabolism, as well as proper production of T3 and T4. Iodine is the main component that is needed. Dysfunction of Iodine can lead to decreased production of T3 and T4, resulting in enlarged thyroid tissue and even lead to thyroid diseases. In order for the thyroid hormone to function adequate amount of Thyroxine (T4) should be found within the blood. Thyronines on the other hand act on nearly all cells inside the body. Their function is to increase basal metabolic rate, affect protein ...view middle of the document...

The thyroid gland is protected by an internal and external layer of a thin sheath known as the capsula glandulae thyroidea. The anterior of the external layer is continuous with the pretracheal fascia and the posterior with the ceratoid sheath. Its attachment to the trachea is what causes the movement when swallowing.
In most cases, the gland is not very visible. Examination is done by locating the thyroid cartilage and running fingers up and down, checking for abnormality and thyroid size. Size of the gland is checked by comparing the two lobes with visual inspection as well as palpitation. At last allow the person being examined to swallow in order to check mobility.

Production
T4 and T3 thyroid hormones are produced by the follicular cell of the thyroid gland and regulated by the TSH which is produced by the thryotopes of the anterior pituitary gland. Thyroxine is also produced by the follicular cells as the precursor for thyroglobulin. Production starts with a sodium iodine symporter that transfers two sodium ions along with an iodide ion across the basement membrane. Iodine then moves along the apical membrane into the follicle. Iodine is then oxidized to form Iodide. In most cases Iodide is non-reactive and only the Iodine that is reactive is needed. Iodination and synthesization of the thyroglobulin takes places in the ER and binds for endocytosis back in to the cell. Released TSH binds to the TSH receptor, stimulationg endocytosis.Endocytosed vesicles fuse together with enzymes, and are then exocytosed, resulting in the release of thyroid hormones.
Thyroxine production occurs by the attachment of Iodine atoms to the structures of the tyrosine molecules. The structure contains four iodine atoms in Tyroxine (T4) and one less iodine atom per molecule in Triiodothyronine (T3).Thyroxine is considered to be the main hormone for T3. T4 is needed for iodothyronine deiodinase. Abnormalities in this can cause iodine deficiency. If Iodine deficiency does...

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