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Thyroid Cancer In Australia Essay

1367 words - 5 pages

Thyroid cancer in Australia is more common in women than men and is usually seen in people younger than 50 years of age, accounting for 2.1% of all cancers in Australia (Thyroid cancer - Cancer Council NSW (2014)). Many types of tumours can develop in the thyroid gland which is situated at the front part of the neck under the thyroid cartilage. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer with approximately 8 of 10 people with thyroid cancer having papillary thyroid cancer (Ain K, Lee C, Holbrook K (2014)). Papillary thyroid cancer usually begins to grow in follicular cells in one of the two lobes of the thyroid, developing very slowly with little to no obvious symptoms. Although, thyroid cancer develops very slowly it is a very common malignant cancer, having the ability to spread to other endocrine organs and spread up to the neck and head. Early accurate diagnosis and timely treatment are critical for improving long term survival of papillary thyroid cancer. Therefore, in the last 5 years the discovery and identification of potential biomarkers of papillary thyroid cancer through surfaced enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS) has helped identify a set of biomarkers that could discriminate papillary thyroid cancer from noncancerous controls. These medical improvements has given medical professionals the ability to diagnose at earlier stages, and then, being about to treat patients’ much quicker, increasing the survival rate for people with papillary thyroid cancer.
Many diagnostics tools have been used for thyroid cancer in the past, with fine needle aspiration biopsy considered as the most effective test for distinguishing malignancy from benign thyroid nodules, yet, its sensitivity is approximately 93% and its specificity is only 75%. (Yuxia Fan, Linan Shi (2009)). Recent advances in proteomic studies have introduced a new technique for the screening of cancer biomarkers and has proven to produce timely and precise diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer compared to any other techniques. This technique is surfaced enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy, which generates a protein fingerprint by mass spectroscopy and chromatography. SELDI-TOF-MS is a new powerful tool that has opened up the horizon for many other possible protein biomarkers discoveries, with many discoveries of biomarkers in other types of cancers.
Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a new ground breaking approach which combines chromatography and mass spectrometry. SELDI-TOF-MS works by capturing proteins by partition, adsorption, electrostatic interaction or affinity chromatography onto a protein chip surface. After the protein is captured on a protein chip surface, a nitrogen laser ionizes the samples that has been co-crystallized with a matrix on a target surface allowing the TOF-MS to calculate their molecular masses (Haleem J....

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