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Tissue Regeneration Essay

1418 words - 6 pages

The number of heart patients is increasing day by day. The need of new therapies is getting higher since the heart muscle has no ability to regenerate, especially after getting damaged. Heart-transplant has been one of the solutions for heart failure. However, the amount of heart donor is small compared to the demand and there are other complications that need to be concerned as well (Leor et al. 2005). Therefore, scientists have worked hard to find alternative therapies, namely cell transplantation to create and engineer the cells to possibly use as an alternative in treating heart diseases. There few heart diseases involve in tissue regeneration application, however this paper will only ...view middle of the document...

Report by Doppler (2013) states that transplanting stem cell directly to the heart could activate the stem cell to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes. Paracrine effects stimulate the development of resident cardiomyocytes from the transplanted stem cells. This approach is one of the tissue engineering’s strategies. 2) Activation of the mechanism that will help in the regeneration of the damaged heart. The mechanism is by administering certain growth factors or cytokines such as fibroblast growth factor to activate the bone marrow’s progenitor cells or endogenous cell sources such as obtainable cardiomyocytes or resident cardiac progenitor cells, which helps stimulate tissue repair (Doppler et al. 2013, Leor et al. 2005).

In tissue engineering, certain kind of cells is separated from a patient through biopsy. These cells are put on a 3D biomimetic scaffold under controlled conditions to be able to grow and it will then be administered into patient’s body. This procedure needs to be done under few critical elements, including the type progenitor cells, the biomaterial scaffold as well as the growth factors to ensure the effectiveness (Leor et al.2005). Common types of cells used in cell heart regeneration therapy in human patients are skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cell and unprocessed mononuclear cells from bone marrow or bone marrow-derived stem cells (BNMCs). However, the usage of skeletal myoblast cannot be applied for long-term therapy because of its inability to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes and unable to survive in the heart (Nugent, Edelmen 2003). Theoretically, to counter the limited ability of the heart to replace the cardiomyocytes is to enhance cardiac muscle cell by manipulating the cell death through disruption with the cell apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy’s mechanisms. Putting oxidative stress on myocytes death does this manipulation (Mercola et al. 2011).

There are a few characteristics that need to be considered when selecting the adult stem cell population; the cells have to be able to proliferate, migrate and have the capability to transdifferentiate into mature multiple cell types. Types of cells that are being used in existing clinical trials are bone marrow derived stem cells (BMCs), adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) and cardiopoietic cells (CPCs). These cells are used for their ability to regenerate the damaged heart tissue after the heart is damaged by blockage of the coronary arteries in animal models. Alternative treatment is to inject cytokines, which will activate the bone marrow progenitor cells. (Doppler et al. 2013, Leor et al. 2005)

BMCs are used because they can be found easily, autologous and continuously regenerate. One of the subpopulation of BMCs is BM-endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) which believed to have the ability to heal impaired endothelium by differentiating into endothelial cells (Doppler et al. 2013, Schoen 2008). These cells are being recruited from bone...

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