Titration Essay

1588 words - 6 pages

Investigation 1- TitrationIntroductionAim: To determine the molarity and strength of hydrochloric acid using a known concentration of sodium hydroxide by volumetric analysis.Theory and background behind titration: The word "titration" comes from the Latin word titulus, meaning inscription or title. The French word titre, also from this origin, means rank. Volumetric analysis originated in late 18th-century France. François-Antoine-Henri Descroizilles developed the first burette (which was similar to a graduated cylinder) in 1791. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac developed an improved version of the burette that included a side arm, and coined the terms "pipette" and "burette" in an 1824 paper on the standardization of indigo solutions. A major breakthrough in the methodology and popularization of volumetric analysis was due to Karl Friedrich Mohr, who redesigned the burette by placing a clamp and a tip at the bottom, and wrote the first textbook on the topic. Acid-base titration is a titration involving volumetric analysis. It is a neutralization reaction that is performed in order to determine the unknown concentration of an acid or base. The moles of acid will be equal to the moles of the base at equivalence point. Titration is also done on a large scale in industries (specially the food and chemical industries to find the acidity of substances).Hypothesis:On titrating hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH):The equation is a 1:1 molar ratio between HCl and NaOH.Based on molar ratio between HCl and NaOH you know that at equivalence point:Moles HCl= Moles NaOHThus,Conc. (HCl) * Vol.(HCl) = Conc.(NaOH) * Vol.(NaOH)Therefore,Conc. (HCl) = Conc.(NaOH) * Vol.(NaOH) / Vol.(HCl)Materials and MethodsEquipments, apparatuses and chemicals used:Conical flask: is used for the reaction. it has the acid in it and is kept under the burette for reaction to take place between the acid and the base.Burette: so that the base's volume can be recorded and that drop by drop titration can occur for proper accuracy and least uncertainty.Volumetric pipette: is used so that exactly 10 ml of acid is taken. This is also for accuracy purposesBeaker: is used to keep the acid and the base.Clamp stand: is used so that the apparatus is set up properly and it makes the work easy as it holds the burette by itself. The clamp stand can also help in accuracy as it is a perpendicular setup. This reduces parallax error.Distilled water: is used to clean the apparatuses after experiment or also in between. Distilled water helps in cleaning as it is 99% pure and does not leave any germs behind while cleaning.Hydrochloric acid: this is the acid we will use in titration whose Concentration is unknown and will have to be found.Sodium hydroxide: will be used as a base in the titration experiment and will be of 0.1M.Phenolphthalein indicator: is used to check the ph of the resulting solution after reaction. a pale pink permanent colour staying for 30 seconds will show us the...

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