4784 words - 19 pages

Aim: - To investigate how the height of a runway affects the average speed of a trolley.Introduction: -Gravitational potential energy is the energy stored in an object as the result of its vertical position (i.e., height). The energy is stored as the result of the gravitational attraction of the Earth for the object. The gravitational potential energy of the heavy ram of a pile driver is dependent on two variables - the mass of the ram and the height to which it is raised. There is a direct relation between gravitational potential energy and the mass of an object; more massive objects have greater gravitational potential energy. There is also a direct relation between gravitational potential energy and the height of an object; the higher that an object is elevated, the greater the gravitational potential energy. These relationships are expressed by the following equation:Potential Energy= m x g x hIn the above equation, m represents the mass of the object, h represents the height of the object and g represents the acceleration of gravity (approximately 10 m/s/s on Earth).Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. An object which has motion - whether it be vertical or horizontal motion - has kinetic energy. There are many forms of kinetic energy - vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion), rotational (the energy due to rotational motion), and transactional (the energy due to motion from one location to another). To keep matters simple, we will focus upon transactional kinetic energy. The amount of transactional kinetic energy (from here on, the phrase kinetic energy will refer to transactional kinetic energy), which an object has, depends upon two variables: the mass (m) of the object and the speed (v) of the object. The following equation is used to represent the kinetic energy (KE) of an object.KE = ½ x M x V2Where m = mass of object, v = speed of objectThis equation reveals that the kinetic energy of an object is directly proportional to the square of its speed. That means that for a twofold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of four; for a threefold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of nine; and for a fourfold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of sixteen. The kinetic energy is dependent upon the square of the speed. As it is often said, an equation is not merely a recipe for algebraic problem solving, but also a guide to thinking about the relationship between quantities.Just as distance and displacement have distinctly different meanings (despite their similarities), so do speed and velocity. Speed is a scalar quantity, which refers to "how fast an object is moving." A fast-moving object has a high speed while a slow-moving object has a low speed. An object with no movement at all has a zero speed.Velocity is a vector quantity, which refers to "the rate at which an object changes its position." Imagine a person moving rapidly - one step...

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