To Clone or Not to Clone
The term cloning evokes powerful emotions in the eyes of the American public. It has been a controversial subject that has caused international uproar on numerous occasions. The term cloning is defined as an individual formed by some asexual process so that it is genetically identical to an already existing or previously existing individual (Barnes). However, there are three different types of cloning: reproductive cloning, recombinant DNA cloning and therapeutic cloning. In this essay I will briefly describe the different types of cloning, why scientists pursue their research and why the public oppose cloning research. These issues have yet to be resolved and they raise public opinion on the morality of laboratory creation.
When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually referring to one type of cloning called reproductive cloning. However, there are three different types of cloning: reproductive cloning, recombinant DNA cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Although, reproductive cloning is the most controversial, it is not the most practiced. The term reproductive cloning is defined as the process in which a new organism is created from the nuclear genetic material of the currently or previously existing organism. The resulting individual would possess the identical nuclear genetic material of an already existing or previously existing individual (Barnes). This process was first successful in 1995 when Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell, and colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Scotland created live lambs-Megan and Morag. This was the first time live animals had been produced from cultured cells (Genetics & Public Policy). The term recombinant DNA cloning refers to the molecule formed by joining a DNA segment of interest to vector DNA (Barnes). This process is also known as research cloning, scientist hope to better understand the development of different diseases using this technology (Genetics & Public Policy). The term therapeutic cloning refers to the potential use of stem cells from cloned embryos to treat degenerative diseases through the transplantation of genetically-matched cells or tissue (Barnes). Human stem cells can develop into almost all of the more than two hundred different cell types that comprise the human body. Using stem cells
is believed to possibly regenerate needed cells or tissues in a human body. Conditions for which such therapy has been discussed include Parkinson disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injuries (Genetics & Public Policy). ...