To Test The Effects Of Antacids On Pepsin's Ability To Digest Protein. Biology Report Minus Introduction, Discussion & Conclusion.

1808 words - 7 pages

Kate FitzpatrickYear Twelve BiologyTerm One(www.happycow.net)"To test the effects of antacids on pepsin's ability to digest protein."Contents1.0 AbstractPg2.0 Introduction· 2.1 Aim· 2.2 Background Information· 2.3 HypothesisPg· Pg· Pg· pg3.0 Materials· 3.1 Equipment· 3.2 ChemicalsPg· Pg· Pg4.0 Method· 4.1 Variables· 4.2 ProcedurePg· Pg· Pg5.0 Results· 5.1 Sample calculation· 5.2 Tables· 5.3 Graphs· 5.4 PhotosPg· Pg· Pg· Pg6.0 DiscussionPg7.0 ConclusionPg8.0 ReferencesPg9.0 AcknowledgementsPg10.0 AppendicesPg2.0 Introduction2.1 AimTo test the effects of antacids on pepsin's ability to digest protein.2.2 Background informationPepsin is an active form of pepsinogen which is released into the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is also released into the stomach from parietal cells and makes the pH acidic, of a pH 1-3. This then activates chief cells to release pepsinogen, which functions in an autocatalyctic fashion. The hydrochloric acid mixed with pepsinogen generates pepsin, which can digest 20% of ingested carbon bonds. The primary structure of pepsin has an additional 44 amino acids which is useful in breaking proteins into smaller pieces called polypeptides (Whitman, 2002). The peptides are further digested by other protease in the duodenum and then absorbed by the body. However pepsin can only break certain amino acid bonds into shorter chains, and as other bonds are broken in the small intestines.Pepsin is stored as pepsinogen and released when needed to ensure that it doesn't digest proteins in the stomach lining, as that would mean it is digesting the cell it makes. Therefore it synthesizes and is secreted inactively to the. stomach. Once pepsin is converted into pepsinogen, a chain reaction takes place. Pepsin triggers the formation of more pepsin, which represents a positive feedback loop. Dually, a negative feedback loop is shown when food enters the stomach. After the salivary amylase partially breaks down the food, it enters the stomach and dilutes it, which simulates more gastric juice to be secreted. According to Wikipedia, the result of this is that the pH decreases, altering the homeostasis of the stomach.Pepsin functions best in an acidic environment, with a pH of 1.5-2 and optimum temperature 60C. The stomach is a perfect environment for this. The hydrochloric acid secreted in the stomach denatures proteins in food, making them more vulnerable to attack by pepsin. It is a fact that the average person secretes 400mL of gastric juice per meal (50-300mg of pepsin/mL) and therefore 80mg pepsin per meal.Antacids refer to medication prescribed to neutralise the stomachs pH after ingestion, heartburn, overeating and stomach imbalance. However a change in the stomachs pH can denature proteins and cease functioning. Antacids aim to neutralize the stomachs pH to around a 6-7 and show a negative feedback...

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