To What Extent Is It Possible To Discredit The 'black Legend Of Childhood' (Keith Wrightson) In 16th And 17th Century England?

2384 words - 10 pages

‘Once upon a time’, many years ago in 16th century England, an IT was born. Wrenched from a mother’s womb IT was imprisoned in tightly wrapped sheets; head fixed, legs stretched out, arms by its sides; so that IT could not move. IT was sent to a wet nurse by the parents; not for the welfare of IT but for their own selfish reasons. If IT died there would be no emotion or mourning. If IT lived, which was considered very unlikely, IT would be neglected, beaten, and only considered valuable when IT was economically productive and could be sent out to work. IT would not live ‘happily ever after’. Such is the ‘black legend of childhood’ .There are no birth or death certificates for IT; no biographies or diaries. IT is merely a figment of this writer’s imagination; IT’s life is fictional and based upon theories of childhood put forward by historians such as Ariѐs, De Mause and Stone . Ariѐs claims that, before medieval times, the idea of a state of childhood was non-existent. He concluded that as children were depicted no differently from adults in the art of the time that they were treated the same as adults. Since the publication of Centuries of Childhood (1962), there has been much historiographical debate with historians’ interpretations falling into two categories; those advocating change believing that the treatment of children improved with the progression of time, and, those advocating continuity, believing that parents have always loved and cared for their children. De Mause writes: ‘The history of childhood is a nightmare from which we have only recently begun to awaken.’ He asserts that:The further back in history one goes, the lower the level of childcare, and the more likely children are to be killed, abandoned, beaten, terrorised, and sexually abused.Like Stone he argues that towards the end of the seventeenth century there was a growing awareness amongst parents that children were not miniature adults but, that until then, children were unloved and uncared for. Conversely Pollock and Cunningham deny there was any change in the way parents treated or reared their children; that children had always been loved and cared for. Pollock’s re-examination of Stone’s evidence highlights the plurality of interpretation that can arise from historical sources. In order to determine to what extent the ‘black legend of childhood’ can be discredited it is necessary to examine the limited primary sources and explore the differing interpretations of some of the key elements of childrearing practices in sixteenth and seventeenth century England.Education in the early modern period was limited, especially among the poor. There is little written evidence available of how parents reared their children or of their emotional attachment to them. Stone and Pollock both use diaries to support their opposing theories but it should be noted that many of these refer to French,...

Find Another Essay On To what extent is it possible to discredit the 'black legend of childhood' (Keith Wrightson) in 16th and 17th century England?

16th and 17th Century Child Care and Child Discipline in Europe

1530 words - 6 pages route that the mother of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, took, as described in a letter written by Cavendish from Colchester, England in the 1620s. Cavendish kindly describes that her mother did not use torture or threats to keep her and her siblings in line, only logic. They were given explanations instead of beatings. This assisted them in actually understanding why what they were doing was wrong, instead of just being told it was wrong

What consequences of typography did people fear the most? To what extent, in the 15th and 16th Centuries, were these fears justified?

1670 words - 7 pages In the early sixth century in Rome there was the practice of keeping a record of the lives of popes in what was known as Liber Pontificalis. "The orthodox collection of these lives was continued well into the Middle Ages and is a standard historical source, whose value for popes, from the late fifth century onwards particularly is well known" (O'Donnell 38). But these writings in Latin Christianity were confined to a well-educated, powerful

Public Art in Greece: To what extent and in what ways does the Parthenon perform the function of a gigantic billboard for the late fifth century Athens? For whom is it intended?

1808 words - 7 pages , where the Persians were defeated, served as role models for young Athenian men to aspire to. (This is not unlike our own war monuments) It thus honored their courage and sacrifice and elevated them from being mere mortals to worthy heroes, ascending and joining the realms of gods. These young warriors "must evoke a generation that is to come - or a generation that has already been" ."Just as the young men in the frieze are presented in their

What drove England to colonize India, in the 19th century ?

1513 words - 6 pages by Joseph Francois Dupleix. Unfortunately, the French lost successively these wars, and put an end to the extension of a French empire in India. It is later, under the administration of Wellesley in the early 19th century the British were conducted the key victories against Indian rivals. The defeats of Sikhs, Marathas, and the Tipu Sultan of Mysore, led the British India Company to control the entirety of India. Having an army, made the British

To what extent can it be claimed that England underwent an industrial revolution in the years 1750 - 1850?

2213 words - 9 pages TO WHAT EXTENT CAN IT BE CLAIMED THAT ENGLAND UNDERWENT AN INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN THE YEARS 1750 - 1850The Industrial Revolution was neither sudden nor swift. It was a long, slow process in which production from hand tools to machines and in which new sources of power such as steam and electricity replaced human and animal power. The Industrial Revolution did not only convert the patterns of work in nations, but completely transformed the way

To What Extent did the Values of the Enlightenment Fuel an 'Industrial Revolution' in Britain in the Late Eighteenth Century and Early Nineteenth Century?

1751 words - 7 pages force to propel industrialisation, "The extent to which agriculture served the domestic market is demonstrated by the fact that by the 1780's Britain was no longer a net exporter of wheat. The home market consumed all that British agriculture could produce, with high demand ensuring high prices".#Many will argue that it was the "constructive cooperation between the worlds of agriculture and business"# that lead to the increase in wealth and was the

Witchcraft in the 16th and 17th centuries - Sanger/English - Essay

948 words - 4 pages ? ?retrospect? ?after? ?the? ?reader? ?discovers? ?more information? ?later? ?in? ?the? ?plot. ? The? ?part? ?of? ?the? ?plot? ?that? ?includes? ?the? ?events? ?that? ?develop? ?the? ?clues? ?and? ?the? ?actions (building? ?to? ?the? ?climax) ? A? ?character? ?that? ?undergoes? ?no? ?change. ? To? ?call? ?something? ?to? ?mind? ?without? ?discussing? ?it? ?explicitly? ??? ?an? ?indirect? ?or? ?passing reference. ? An? ?omniscient? ?narrator? ?is

TO WHAT EXTENT HAVE CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENTS BEEN CHANGED AND DEVELOPED IN AMERICA SINCE THE 20TH CENTURY?

1015 words - 5 pages significant events throughout the 20th century. As a large section of public opinion is shaped through media and mass communication, the paper will investigating how advertisers disseminated ideas and messages to the public and their use of various distribution channels. This will develop an understanding of how language in the media is used as a tool to form public opinion and will show why and how advertisements change over time. The advertisements

TO WHAT EXTENT HAVE CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENTS BEEN CHANGED AND DEVELOPED IN AMERICA SINCE THE 20TH CENTURY?

1154 words - 5 pages In addition to that, Appendix 5, the 1960’s Tipalet advertisement was another popular advert of the time. The background of this advert is yellow making it warm and inviting. There are two characters in the ad, a man smoking a Tipalet and a woman whom he is blowing his smoke at, so that she can smell the “amazing” flavor. The woman is gorgeous; she is tanned with long brown hair, and her big brown eyes are staring at this very handsome man who

Is it Possible to Travel at the Speed of Light?

3982 words - 16 pages Ever since 1966, when the first episode of Star Trek aired, there has been a question lingering in the mind of humans; fans, children, and scientists alike. To some, it is just wishful fantasizing, but to others, it is a goal to pursue and an idea that may not be so far-fetched -- Is it possible for humans to travel at the speed of light? If so, why should humans attempt this and will they? If not, what are some of the limitations of travel at

To what extent is the value of knowledge determined by the difficulty of accessing it? - Essay

1824 words - 8 pages lead me to question….to what extent is the value of knowledge determined by the difficulty of obtaining/accessing it? In natural sciences, the extent of effort taken to access something enhances its value, whereby overcoming difficulty leads to a sense of achievement. Therefore, through an absolutist view, one can deduce that knowledge attained through greater complications and/or challenges, holds greater value than those that were lessor, or

Similar Essays

Love In The Poetry Of The 16th And 17th Century

1462 words - 6 pages During the 16th and 17th century, many love poems and sonnets were written and most likely circulated for amusement and satire among poets. Though every poem is written about the poet’s undying love for their beloved, they all display different attitudes to love and ways of showing it. In 130, Shakespeare writes of his dark lady, portraying a real picture of her genuine features. Almost every line at first glance seems like an insult to his

History About Holland During The 16th And 17th Century. How Holland Became What It Is Now With A Brief Description Of Historical Civil War And Royality

2378 words - 10 pages charter of "Privileges and Exemptions" under which several large manorial estates were acquired in New Netherland, one of which (the Van Rensselaer Manor on the Hudson) existed, with some of its privileges, until late in the present century. It recognized the right of the Indians to the soil; invited independent farmers to whom a homestead should be secured; promised protection to all in case of war, and encouraged religion and learning. Yet

'to What Extent Are The Female Characters Represented In 'tess Of The D'urbervilles ' Stereotypical To Women Living In Rural England In The Mid 19th Century?'

4617 words - 18 pages In the famous Thomas Hardy novel 'Tess of the D'Urbervilles' I will explore the representation of female charactors and to what extent they are perceived as stereotypes. Thomas Hardy lived during the Victorian period his experience in Victorian England shaped the novel. Tess, which was first serialised in magazines was highly successful due to the fact that it criticised practices at the time and focused on important and topical issues of the

Puritan Conflicts In Early 17th Century England

1745 words - 7 pages Puritan Conflicts in Early 17th Century England Individual free will allows for a variety of different beliefs to be cultivated. Unfortunately, people do not always accept a variety of ideas. One area in the human experience that has long been disputed is religion. Religion is such a controversial topic that it has been the cause of many wars such as the Crusades and the Thirty Years’ War. The people involved in these wars