This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

To What Extent Can Violence Be Seen As A Catalyst To The Advancement Of African American Civil Rights In The Period 1865 1965

1253 words - 6 pages

In a similar fashion, CORE’s non-violent ‘Freedom Ride’ of May 1961 served to challenge racial segregation in the nations interstate bus system, which the Supreme Court had declared an unconstitutional violation of human rights. By the time they had reached Alabama on the 14th of May, the trip had drawn little national publicity and had achieved little, but on this day the violence directed towards the freedom riders brought the freedom rides to national attention. In Anniston, Alabama, one bus was stopped and set ablaze. As the Freedom Riders ran from the smoke and flames, a mob tried to murder them, while other southerners tried to save them. The other bus reached Birmingham, and the ...view middle of the document...

However, non-violent protests sometimes precipitated violence without the aim to do so, and at times violent acts were committed with little provocation. During the Year of Birmingham 1963, two such events occurred, events that galvanized public opinion behind federal legislation to abolish segregation . The first was the Children’s Crusade, during which over 600 students (some as young as six) marched out of Birmingham’s Sixteenth Street Baptist church singing ‘we shall overcome’ and headed east toward the city hall. Horrifically, the police used violent dogs and high-powered jets of water to disperse the march, children were literally “sent skittering down gutters” . This was televisions finest hour. Headlines of “Infants sent to jail” and striking photographs of the snarling dogs, and high-pressure hoses appeared globally; among these was the popular picture of two dogs attempting to sink their teeth into activist Henry Lee Shambry. To make matters worse on Sunday, September 15, 1963 a second event shook the structures of the so-called City of Churches. On this day, eighteen days after the March on Washington, four young schoolgirls were killed in the Ku Klux Klan’s bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church. It seemed the bombing was the last straw, President John F. Kennedy stated that the events had “made him sick”, and announced that he was sending to congress “a remedy for the events of Birmingham”: The first serious Civil Rights legislation since reconstruction- ultimately the Civil Rights Act of 1964 . The violent events of Birmingham did not just catalyze the civil rights movement, they heralded the end of legalized racism in America, and they led to change.

In conclusion, its evident that violence played an important role in Catalyzing the Civil Rights movement. McGuire’s (2010) hypothesis of how the Civil rights movement really began in protest against the ritualistic rape of black women is groundbreaking and necessary in providing evidence to the different ways in which violence created change. The views of J. Garrow (2004) and McWhorter (2001) on how events such as the freedom rides and the Children’s Crusades precipitated violence and created change also support the idea that Violence was a catalyst. Most of all the admissions of James Farmer and Martin Luther King that the use of non-violent protest was aimed to precipitate violence show that even the leaders of the time understood that violence catalyzed the civil rights struggle.

Works Cited

1. Mumford, K. (7/2/2013). A minute with Kevin Mumford, expert on the histories of race relations and sexuality. Available: Last accessed 3rd Dec 2013.
2. McWhorter, D (2001). Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama, the...

Find Another Essay On To What Extent Can Violence be seen as a Catalyst to the Advancement of African American Civil Rights in the period 1865- 1965

"To what extent had african americans acheived equal civil rights by 1940?" A reviw of the civil rights and treatment of blacks in pre-civil-war America

973 words - 4 pages To What Extent Had African Americans Achieved Equal Civil Rights by 1940?The civil rights of black Americans have improved greatly since the first pioneersof the civil rights movement began their quest for equality. Though most people associateblack civil rights with the radical movements of the 1950's and 60's, the African Americanfight for equal human rights had actually begun almost two hundred years earlier.In 1776, the white American

To what extent can Hardy's Tess be seen as a femme fatale?

979 words - 4 pages Tess's sexual agency, - to what extent can Tess be seen as a femme fatale figure?Tess had heard those notes in the attic above her head. Dim, flattened, constrained by their confinement, they had never appealed to her as now, when they wandered in the still air with a stark quality like that of nudity. To speak absolutely, both instrument and execution were poor; but the relative is all, and as she listened Tess, like a fascinated bird, could

To what extent did Kennedy and Johnson improve Civil Rights of African Americans?

1333 words - 5 pages little Kennedy actually accomplished as president but how much Johnson and the civil rights movement achieved thanksTo be able to compare and objectively see the extent to which these two presidents improved civil rights for African Americans, we must first ascertain what their goals were and if they accomplished them or not; establish the extent of what they did with president each of the surrounding circumstances.In the early 1960S, the drive

To what extent did southern commitment to states' rights weaken the Confederates in the Civil War?

2718 words - 11 pages To what extent did southern commitment to states' rights weaken the Confederates in the Civil War?The reasons for the secession of southern states that led to the American Civil War were based largely on their belief and ideas of state rights (or "states rights," a variant that came into use after the war). This exalted the powers of the individual states as opposed to those of the Federal government and generally rested on the theory of state

Despite The African Setting, 'The Poisonwood Bible' Can Be Seen As An Attack On American Society. Discuss

3289 words - 14 pages the USA. "The Poisonwood Bible" also explores this, Rachel talks about a cartoon of Khrushchev "holding hands and dancing with a skinny cannibal native with big lips and a bone in his hair, Khrushchev was singing 'Bingo, Bango, Bongo, I don't want to leave the Congo!'" highlighting a cynical vision of American culture.Orleanna can be seen as the typical American mother when she first arrives in the Congo, striving to provide for her family. She is

To what extent did the Federal Government contribute to the Civil Rights Movement

1358 words - 5 pages for progress in terms of civil rights.The Supreme Court Head Judge, known as the chief justice, was Earl Warren, a white man, who was extremely sympathetic towards African American cases, He is significant predominately because he ruled in Brown Vs the Board and other NAACP cases, this led to the de jure change of very important issues. However you can argue that progress from Court decisions would have come eventually, or even sooner, through the

Women Rights in the Middle East Vs. Civil Rights of African American in the 1800's

1928 words - 8 pages When someone says the word “slaves” what do you think about? Blacks, civil rights, the south or even Martin Luther King Jr, and you would be right all those things relate in a major way to slaves in the history of the United States but what about the rest of the world? Slavery is found all around the world but what if I told you that in most parts of the world slavery does not really have to do with the color of your skin and more with the

The Role of African American Women in the Civil Rights Movement

2573 words - 10 pages The African American Civil Rights Movement was a series of protests in the United States South from approximately 1955 through 1968. The overall goal of the Civil Rights Movement was to achieve racial equality before the law. Protest tactics were, overall, acts of civil disobedience. Rarely were they ever intended to be violent. From sit-ins to boycotts to marches, the activists involved in the Civil Rights Movement were vigilant and dedicated

Was Martin Luther King vital to the gaining of civil rights for African Americans?

1993 words - 8 pages MYP Year 11 Assessment 4 - Civil Rights in the USASection 1According to Sources One, Two and Three what impact did the Jim Crow laws have upon the legal and social lives of African Americans living in the Southern States?The Jim Crow Laws enacted in the USA's Southern States between 1877-1965 legalized segregation amongst African Americans and Whites in public areas under a "separate but equal" doctrine. African Americans living in these states

Assess the degree to which African Americans were denied Civil and Human Rights in the southern states of the USA in the decades leading up to the 1950s

1000 words - 4 pages In the decades leading up to the 1950's, African American people were denied basic human rights as they were seen to be "lower" and "inferior" human beings. This racial discrimination can be traced back to the days of slavery in the 1600's right up to today in the 21st Century. It has been only in the last 50-60 years that African Americans have been treated as equals. The prime root of this conduct can be seen from the beginning of

The African-American Civil Rights Movement 1955-1958

4312 words - 17 pages Amendment of 1870, gave African American males the right to vote in elections, where at the time only white males were able to vote in the United States. From the period 1877-1965, the United States went through a Reconstruction Era that tried to establish free labor and civil rights of freedmen in the South. Many whites living in the South did not like these changes and began to form their own movements to retaliate. Members of a group named the

Similar Essays

To What Extent Can Violence Be Seen As A Catalyst To The Advancement Of African American Civil Rights In The Period 1865 1965

2771 words - 12 pages lynching was used as a tool to repress African Americans. However it also gave birth to an influential anti-lynching campaign that gained wide national support in the 1890s and spanned over 30 years, further reinforcing the idea that violence led to Civil rights advancement. Noralee Frankel (1994), who said “The anti-lynching movement cannot be described only as a result of the reforms during the Progressive Era”, supports this . Furthermore, it

To What Extent Can “All My Sons” Be Seen As A Criticism Of “The American Dream” And The American Way Of Life?

2092 words - 9 pages his marriage plans he decides to take him out for dinner, where there will be ”big time tonight” with “steak” and “champagne” which would have still been not easily affordable luxuries. This can suggest that by the way Joe is splashing his money about that he is not ashamed of his wealth and sees no wrong in what he has done as he has worked hard to earn it for himself ans his family. Joe Keller represents everyman, he is a “man among men” with

To What Extent Can 'the Violets' Be Seen As A Representative Of The Poetic Qualities And Concerns Of Harwood's Work?

1481 words - 6 pages To what extent can 'The Violets' be seen as a representative of the poetic qualities and concerns of Harwood's work? Base your discussion on a detailed analysis of this poem and one of the other set poems.Through the collection of Gwen Harwood's works there are evident traits, qualities, concerns and thematic ideas that are brought up distinctively in all of her works. With the quality of her language and techniques which are wildly eloquent and

To What Extent Can The 1936 Popular Front Government Be Seen As A Missed Opportunity For Social Transformation

2255 words - 9 pages due to immigration and no country in the world had a higher proportion of people over sixty' (Jackson, p.18). Tardieu was obligated to carry out a series of long overdue reforms, incorporating advancements in technology and establishment of a welfare state. Jackson referred to it as a "period of transatlantic ideas of rationalisation an economic modernisation" (Jackson p.18). At the beginning of 1931 France, like the rest of the world, began to