This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

To What Extent Did Environment Effect Urban Mentality In The Medieval Times?

1917 words - 8 pages

To a large extent the growth of towns in the medieval times greatly altered the mentality of its inhabitants. The social environment created by the mass immigration to towns marks a sharp increase in economic and political awareness, as well as a transition towards a more cultured society, increasingly characterised by intellect rather than religion. However, much has been exaggerated regarding the changes that occurred: in many ways towns remained essentially feudal societies; 'artisans and labourers remained essentially peasants without land' and the peasants who created the bulk of the urban population retained their traditional values.A typical layout for a large medieval town was based on the design of Jerusalem, the 'golden city'--surrounded by walls, it was divided into four quarters by four main streets, and had at the centre a square with the law court and pillory. This highlights two interesting aspects of the medieval town. Firstly, the walls, which surrounded most towns, are exemplary of the communal atmosphere that pervaded urban life. There was a strong sense of kinship between citizens of the town, which no doubt empowered them in their struggle for certain privileges. The importance of the family also seems to have become more acute during this period. The security of the town, kinship of its citizens, and distrust of outsiders is demonstrated in Ypres, where any stranger arriving in the town had to leave their sword at the gate. The second point to be made is the importance of the central location of the law-court and pillory, which highlights the growing freedom of townsmen to govern themselves.One of the most important effects of urbanisation on mentality was the growth of political awareness and economic independence. The density of population in the towns along with their economic importance meant that the monarchy was willing to grant them certain economic and political privileges. Although the king retained ultimate control of all towns, the urban areas were given a large amount of freedom. A notable example is that of taxation. Initially, the king appointed officials who collected taxes from each family, the result was that most officials over taxed and used the profit for personal use. Instead, the townsmen took control of taxation themselves; they chose the person who commanded the office and gathered the sum as a community; any excess money went directly to the town. Furthermore, rather than being controlled by Royal Officials, each town had a representative body. The borough authorities had control of many aspects of town life: they controlled working hours, set the rate of pay, recorded budget keeping and took initiatives to find new sources of revenue. Many towns had the right to representation in parliament and free tenure of property, and there also existed a civil constitution. Nonetheless, numerous uprisings were recorded between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. These seem to have been caused by discontent...

Find Another Essay On To What Extent Did Environment Effect Urban Mentality in the Medieval Times?

To what extent did southern commitment to states' rights weaken the Confederates in the Civil War?

2718 words - 11 pages To what extent did southern commitment to states' rights weaken the Confederates in the Civil War?The reasons for the secession of southern states that led to the American Civil War were based largely on their belief and ideas of state rights (or "states rights," a variant that came into use after the war). This exalted the powers of the individual states as opposed to those of the Federal government and generally rested on the theory of state

To what extent did Nazi policy result in a 'social revoltuion' in the lives of women?

1498 words - 6 pages The Nazi regime changed the lives of German's in many different ways. One of the most targeted groups within society were German women. However, it has long been debated whether a social revolution ever happened in German women's lives during the Nazi period, and if so, to what extent the Nazi regime revolutionised women's lives.The first view that historians put across is that there was a complete revolution in the lives of German women during

To What Extent did the U.S. Engaged in Covert Actions in Chile

1357 words - 5 pages carried out thru 1974 under the executive authorization of three U.S. Presidents. Interesting, is that a Congressional investigative committee in 1975 did not find U.S. government directly involved in the Chilean government coup. For the U.S. policymakers finding the proper balance between the management and the operating command structure was challenging, which poised the question: To what extend did the U.S. engaged in covert actions in Chile

To What Extent Did Realism in Photography Impact the Public Opinion of the Civil War

2081 words - 9 pages A. PLAN OF THE INVESTIAGTION This investigation explores to what extent did realism presented by photography impact the public opinion of the Civil War? The Civil War was the pioneer war in terms of actively using photography as a means of recording. The investigation focuses on photography’s role in capturing the war at face value. Photos of major battles and scenes that exposed citizens to the reality of war will be analyzed, as well as how

To what extent did the French Resistance assist in the allies liberation of France?

945 words - 4 pages The French Resistance (La Résistance française) was a collaboration of individual movements against the German occupation of France and the Vichy regime that complied with the Nazis during World War II. Starting in 1940 and ending with the liberation of France, French people from all ends of the economic and political spectrum united in different Résistance groups to perform guerilla attacks, run underground newspapers, provide intelligence to

To what extent did America "roar" for all Americans in the 1920's?

5729 words - 23 pages anti-German feeling and campaigners were able to argue that it would be patriotic to close the brewers down. Therefore, a decline in the amount of alcohol being produced appeared. Prohibition wasn't something that happened overnight, there had been a gradually build up to it. Even though prohibition seemed like a good idea in theory, it had almost the exact opposite effect from what it intended. Instead of reducing the crime rate, it managed to

To What Extent Did the Railroad Affect Westward Expansion in 19th Century America?

2053 words - 9 pages A: Plan of the Investigation This investigation evaluated: To what extent does the railroad affect westward expansion in 19th century America? In order to assess its contribution, the investigation focused on the construction and expansion of the railroads westward; evaluating how and to what extent the western frontier used the railroads. This is done by assessing who the first settlers were, what the trains were transporting between the East

To What extent did the US escalate the Cold war?

2211 words - 9 pages various techniques such as acquiring new weapons, surveillance weapons, the development of and acquiring new techniques and strategies, media and propaganda, and above all, a competition in each and everything. Over the years it's been scrutinized and debated as to actually who was the reason behind the escalation. Was the U.S behind what is termed the "Domino Effect" in the war, or was it the USSR? Looking over what the historians say, some of my own

To what extent did the revolutionaries create a new society?

995 words - 4 pages In the case of Russia, the revolutionaries who attempted to create a new society were the Bolsheviks leaded by Lenin after the October Revolution in 1917. After the seizure of power, Lenin and the Bolsheviks created a new society in Russia to a large extent. They moved to eradicate the old order and all the old vestiges of the pre-October 1917 society and replace them with a new one, despite minor residue of the old order. The creation of a new

To What Extent Did the Nazis Establish a Volksgemeinschaft?

4075 words - 16 pages Germany. Arguabely, the Volk community as manipulated according to Nazi lines, would have been grown to a respectable extent if Germany did not enter the subsequent war. If indoctrination had taken place for two generations at least the German boy and the German girl would have deeply conformed to their respective gender ideal as propagated by the state which became increasingly powerful in all fields after the Enabling Bill was passed. The actual

to what extent did stalin transform the society - history - history

1708 words - 7 pages “To what extent did Stalin and/or Lenin transform the USSR, economically & socially, between 1917 & 1939?” Introduction: Between 1917 and 1939 Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, better known as Stalin or Man of Steel, and Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, Lenin, transformed the USSR from a backward agricultural state into a modern industrial power. Following the October Revolution of 1917 and Russia’s exit from the First World War through the Treaty of

Similar Essays

How Did Literature Change Throughout Europe Between The Medieval Times To The Renaissance Period And What Contributed To That Change?

672 words - 3 pages the medieval times to the Renaissance period. Each one of these are important to prove or explain in more details because then you’ll understand what I’m trying to prove. I know there were more things that had happened throughout Europe during the medieval and Renaissance period, but the points that I’m going to prove are the main points of the difference or the change in each time period. Some people would have just picked one specific country

To What Extent Did Pol Pot Have A Catastrophic Effect On Society?

1500 words - 6 pages Pol Pot and his party The Khmer Rouge ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. Pol Pot, to a very large extent had a catastrophic effect on society, one from which Cambodia has not made a full recover. Pol Pot, to a large extent, had a catastrophic effect on the lives of his people. He was responsible for the killing of around 25% of the population, in particular, the intelligentsia, or anyone who appeared educated (Pagewise Inc. 2002). His policies

To What Extent Did Economic Considerations Influence The American Decision To Go To War In Korea?

2267 words - 9 pages Although Acheson's "Defensive Perimeter" speech in Jan 12, 1950 did not include Korea, when the war broke out the US was involved immediately. The aim of this investigation is to find out to what extent did economic reasons influence the USA's decision to go to war in Korea. The main sources will be books that relate to the Korean War. Internet sources will be used if it is necessary for the summary of evidence. In B, the changes of the American

To What Extent Did D Essay

745 words - 3 pages "played the China card". They started a triangular policy. While starting SALT talks with the Soviet Union, secret meetings were held in Warsaw with the Chinese. In 1970 Nixon said: "If there is anything I want to do before I die, it is to go to China" and during Henry Kissinger's secret trip to Beijing in 1971 he offered Beijing to inform it of all Washington's meetings with Moscow.An improvement of relations between the USA and China put