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To What Extent Had The Policy Of Collectivisation Achieved Its Aims By 1941?

804 words - 3 pages

Collectivisation was Stalin's answer to his belief that Russia's agriculture was in a terrible state. In a speech in 1928 he said, "Agriculture is developing slowly, comrades. This is because we have about 25 million individually owned farms. They are the most primitive and undeveloped form of economy. We must do our utmost to develop large farms and to convert them into grain factories for the country organised on a modem scientific basis." This statement was correct, Russia's agriculture was very backward: it had barely any mechanisation such as tractors and the use of scientific measures was minimal.Economically with collectivisation Stalin aimed to increase production, boost industry and sale abroad.By 1941, collectivisation had not achieved its aims economically as although grain production had in creased in the years 1928-40 from 73.3 to 97.4 million tonnes, there had been disaster years in the middle where peasant had refused to hand grain over and would not co-operate. As grain production was increasing, so was the population of Russia: in 1914 the population of Russia was estimated to be 140.4 million whereas in 1940 the population had grown to an estimate of 194.1 million. This meant even though more grain was being produced it did not mean that there was more food available for the people of Russia. Even though the country was not very rich, Russia still continued to export grain, resulting in even less food for Russia.There was minimal economic success for collectivisation: Stalin had hoped to move agriculture in Russia forward. There was an increase in the use of tractors on farms. In 1913, there had been no tractors, but by 1940 there was 31.6 thousand, though this was a significant increase it was by no means enough to cater for the vast amount of farms in Russia. Another success was that the small plots of land were the most successful; these provided most of the food for Russia. In 1937, 20% of all grain was produced on these small plots and 70% fruit and vegetables.Socially, collectivisation had been a disaster by 1941. There was a huge loss in human lives due to famine and pure brutality. During the famine of 1932-34 approximately 4-5 million died. Families died lying outside warehouses full of grain. Even through this the government still hoarded grain to sell to other countries to earn foreign currency to be used for investment in industry. Peasants were...

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