To What Extent Has The French Political System Become Less 'presidential' In Character Since 1986?

2869 words - 11 pages

To what extent has the French political system become less 'Presidential' in character since 1986?The French political system is described as a hybrid system with a separately elected President who shares executive power with the Prime Minister. It is a hybrid model that is most cited as a semi-presidential system where the constitution and political circumstances tend to place the emphasis on the powers of the President. The Constitution of the Fifth Republic sought to strengthen the executive in relation to the legislature. The role of the President as head of state and pivot of this new system was and is that of a national arbiter standing above party politics and responsible for ensuring that the institutions function properly. Since 1962, the President has been directly elected giving him the mandate of the people. Charles de Gaulle founder and first President of the fifth Republic believed that this made the President accountable only to the public. Thus the directly elected President with his pivotal role outlined in the constitution of the Fifth Republic plays an almost central role in French politics. This essay seeks to outline this role in the system and address whether the French system has become less presidential since 1986.The constitution defines the President's power and it is these powers that centralise his figure in French politics. To start with the French President is elected for five years and this is the longest term in any parliamentary system. In addition, the President may be re-elected an indefinite number of times unlike the US President. It must also be said that French President is elected more on his charisma and policies. The people elect a person to the position not a party. Therefore the incumbent having been elected can use his charisma and diplomacy to remain in power. The people have elected him as an individual and he sits as head of state.Under article 15 the President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity and observance of treaties under article 5. This is the license that the President has been given to carry out his central role in French Politics. The President as commander in chief of the armed forces has what the heads of states of most countries don't have: the power to command the military. Therefore under a crisis the French President would be looked upon and he must use the mandate given to him to solve the crisis. It is his duty under the constitution to be the guarantor of national independence and territorial integrity. It is the President whose job it is to protect the liberty of the citizens and this centralises his figure in French politics. The French military is still one of the world's major forces. The head of state is commanding an internationally renowned force. As guarantor of observance of treaties the French President plays a key role in Foreign policy and again this is a power few heads of state in Europe have....

Find Another Essay On To what extent has the French political system become less 'Presidential' in character since 1986?

'In modern times, the rights of individuals have become increasingly threatened by governments.' To what extent has your awareness of danger been influenced by the works of one of more writers

1977 words - 8 pages after emerging from hiding, Solomon walks back into the very same dining room which hours before his mother and sister were gleefully circling, and sees Bertha lying flat on the table- deceased, the rest of the family looking on in bewildered sorrow. Solomon's father is quick to announce that the family has to leave for Poland, 'for the boys.' And in less than 10 minutes Holland has detailed on of the most significant human-abuses that were

The Electoral College: How It Has Shaped the Modern Presidential Election Since 1968

1174 words - 5 pages has entrusted them to provide such representation, the Electoral College works to ensure that smaller states are not denied the right to have the equal power of influence in our national election for President (Neale, 2004). The Electoral College itself has been in existence since it was introduced within the framework of various proposals introduced at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 (Neale, 2004). The Mcgovern-Fraser Commission in 1969

Why has citizenship become a significant political issue in the UK?

1288 words - 6 pages 13024684 Nana .A. Akrofi Why has citizenship become a significant political issue in the UK? Modern Britain sees citizenship as a status that denotes membership of a nation-state and which carries with it certain rights and duties associated with that membership. (Faulks 1998). It has always been a sensitive and significant

Why has citizenship become a significant political issue in the UK?

744 words - 3 pages 2007 that is causing job losses across the country and undoubtedly putting a lot of pressure on public amenities, play an integral role in why UK citizenship has become a significant political issue lately. In spite of all that, it could be argued that the world is becoming more integrated and the UK cannot “cherry pick” that parts it prefers. Regardless, there is a public uproar about successive government’s reluctance to do anything about the

Did the Constitution intend for a multi-party political system, or did this system simply become prevalent in America on its own?

972 words - 4 pages effects of a two-party political system were well worth the trouble. With only the Era of Good Feelings as an exception, America has never been under single-party rule as a free nation. People were better represented in government when multiple parties were present, leaders were limited by the agreement of their opposition to new policies, and the number of parties was determined by the overall national need. It is to the credit of the writers of the Constitution that only a few political parties have ever existed at the same time in American history, and that the change of power from one to the other has never been in the bloody, revolutionary style of European governments.

Ireland Has A Long History Of Censorship. Compare The Political And Cultural Motivations Behind Two Different Periods Of Censorship Since 1922

2985 words - 12 pages motivation. Political censorship has been defined by Pronay (cited by O'Drisceoil 1996) as:'Political conditioning by negative propaganda, preventing the promotion of alternative ideas to those projected as the basis of the authority, legitimacy and policies of the government'.Neutrality:Britain's declaration of war on Germany on 3 September1939 marked the beginning of what became the Second World War. In Ireland it marked the beginning of 'the

Has our Political System Succeeded? Essay for American Govt.teacher. Made an A on this paper

571 words - 2 pages Connecticut compromise. The four things our Constitution accomplished were indirect democracy, limited government, checks and majority rule, and an outline of what the different branches of government do.Our nation's two main parties are Republican and Democrat. The Democratic Party was founded in 1828, and our Republican party was founded in 1854. Since 1856, these have been the only major parties.Our political system has succeeded in many ways. One

TO WHAT EXTENT HAVE CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENTS BEEN CHANGED AND DEVELOPED IN AMERICA SINCE THE 20TH CENTURY?

1015 words - 5 pages BODY Since the early 20th century, dramatic changes have occurred in cigarette advertising. Initially, tobacco was made to seem glamorous and desirable through advertising. In the 1920’s, cigarette smoking was portrayed in adverts to be romantic. It is apparent that women were portrayed in a sexual way in the advertisements so men would buy their cigarettes and therefore, glamour and attractive models were used to attract viewers. It was the era

TO WHAT EXTENT HAVE CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENTS BEEN CHANGED AND DEVELOPED IN AMERICA SINCE THE 20TH CENTURY?

1154 words - 5 pages has a perfectly rugged chin and the perfect facial structure that blows the smoke directly in the beautiful woman’s face. Also in this advert, sex appeal is used to attract viewers, as in the Chesterfield:."Blow Some My Way"(1926) campaign. The woman is actress Barbra Carrerra. In her performances she often played sinister femme fatale, to great effect, being very popular at the time. The woman appears to be enjoying the smoke that is blown at

To what extent did the French Resistance assist in the allies liberation of France?

945 words - 4 pages The French Resistance (La Résistance française) was a collaboration of individual movements against the German occupation of France and the Vichy regime that complied with the Nazis during World War II. Starting in 1940 and ending with the liberation of France, French people from all ends of the economic and political spectrum united in different Résistance groups to perform guerilla attacks, run underground newspapers, provide intelligence to

What changes could governments and banks make to become less discrimatory towards the poor?

682 words - 3 pages In our society today the poor never get a fair chance to prove themselves. Banks call them "bad credit risks" and governments in developing countries do nothing to help them get a chance to succeed in life. Millions of poor people around the world can improve their living standards if they had a chance to prove them selves. I have some ideas that governments and banks can do to become less discriminated towards the poor.One idea is for

Similar Essays

To What Extent Has The Conservative’s Party Changed Since The Electio Of David Cameron As Its Leader?

2151 words - 9 pages The conservative party has been in existence since the 1670s and was first called the ‘Tories’, a term used by the Scottish and Irish to describe a robber. This party is a right- wing party which believed in conserving the tradition and the king, as the name entails. David Cameron, the current party leader became the leader in 2005. He is also the present prime minister of Great Britain and he has made a lot of changes since he became the leader

The Comparison Of Parliamentary Political System In Sweden And Semi Presidential Political System In France And The Results For Turkey

3339 words - 13 pages instability. Since the introduction of the presidential regime in 1958, and its reinforcement in 1962, the French political system has undergone vast changes. The most important of these changes have been reinforced executive authority, government stability, and a more coherent party system. The central question that needs to be dealt with, and then is: Are the post 1958 changes in the political system attributable to the constitutional change from a

“Each Character In King Lear Has Control Over Their Fate. The Fates Of Each Character Are Determined By Events Which Occur In The Opening Scenes Of The Play.” To What Extent Do You Agree With This...

1317 words - 5 pages "Each character in King Lear has control over their fate. The fates of each character are determined by events which occur in the opening scenes of the play."To what extent do you agree with this statement?Freewill and fate are themes which are frequently discussed in reference to Shakespeare's plays. He often makes the audience wonder whether the characters ever had a choice in how their stories would end. King Lear's decision to abdicate the

“Each Character In King Lear Has Control Over Their Fate. The Fate Of Each Character Is Determined By The Events That Occur In Act One Of The Play” To What Extent Do You Agree With This?

1006 words - 4 pages Chloe Stone"Each character in King Lear has control over their fate. The fate of each character is determined by the events that occur in act one of the play" - To what extent do you agree with this?Fate has proven to be a very important theme throughout many of Shakespeare's plays. In King Lear fate plays a particularly important role, as many critics would agree that the fate of each character is determined by events that occur in act one of