Tobacco: The Cost Effectiveness Of Current Smoke Free Policies

1338 words - 5 pages

1. Introduction

Tobacco use constitutes a global epidemic that results in 5 million deaths each year (World Health Organization, 2008). If current trends in tobacco use continue, the number of tobacco-related deaths is expected to rise to 8 million deaths annually by 2030 – with 80 percent of these deaths taking place in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Mathers & Loncar, 2006).

Currently, about 10 percent of the world’s smokers live in India (World Health Organization, 2008). The 2009-2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative household survey, found that 34.6% of adults over the age of 15 in India currently use tobacco (International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), 2010). The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Gujarat, India, including those using smokeless as well as smoked tobacco is estimated to be 19.8% among males and 1.5% among females(International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), 2010). Most smokers in India consume bidis, small cigarettes containing, on average, 25 percent less tobacco than the average cigarette (Jha et al., 2008). Despite the smaller amount of tobacco in bidis, they can produce more nicotine, carbon monoxide, and tar than the average manufactured cigarette because of the way smokers puff on them (Mackay J et al., 2006). One recent nationally representative case-control study found that about 70% of smoking-related deaths in India take place during productive years of life between 30-69 years of age (Jha et al., 2008). In addition, the study projected that smoking will kill one million people each year starting in 2010 (Jha et al., 2008).

Since 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) offers a legally binding treaty that mandates evidence-based tobacco control policies and programs to reduce morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Countries such as India that have ratified the FCTC are legally required to implement its provisions, including interventions to reduce secondhand smoke exposure (World Health Organization, 2005). Article 8 of the FCTC requires signatories to adopt and implement measures to protect their populations from exposure to SHS in indoor work places, public transportation, and closed public spaces.

Since ratifying the FCTC in 2004, India’s tobacco control policies and programs have undergone improvements necessary to create the evidence-based strategies suggested in the FCTC text. The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) was enacted by the national government of India on May 1, 2004 (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2008b; Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2008a). This legislation contains most of the areas covered by the FCTC's articles – including provisions on advertising, promotion and sponsorship, health warnings, and a ban on smoking in public places. COTPA’s Section 4, which bans smoking in public places, contains an exemption that allows separate...

Find Another Essay On Tobacco: The Cost-effectiveness of Current Smoke-free Policies

Questioning the Effectiveness of Affirmative Action Policies

2384 words - 10 pages other social duty is so important as to overrule any one of the general maxims of justice” (Mill 113). It seems that the rule utilitarian approach would implicate that we should decide which public policies best obey the rules. Reasonably, affirmative action policies would be judged on whether they coincide with rules such as the equal opportunity principle. With that in mind, we must examine problems with Mill's theory. First, Mill appears to

The Cost Effectiveness of Online Education

1947 words - 8 pages University, which has 68,064 students” (para. 7). Despite the cost effectiveness, distance education is becoming the educational model of the future. As the economy has changed in the last ten years so has the schools budgets and they are looking for ways to keep costs down. There is much evidence that distance education can be more cost effective than traditional education. Everyone can save a substantial amount of money by going with an online

Evaluating the Clinical and Cost-effectiveness of New Medicines

1661 words - 7 pages Every year a large number of new medicines receive marketing authorisation. It is the National Health Service (NHS) responsibility to decide whether the additional cost of purchasing these medicines is justified by the likely benefit to patients. For this reason, a multi-disciplinary activity known as the health technology assessment (HTA) has been created. In the UK, HTA mainly focuses on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of new medicines

Smoke in the Eye - The Fight Against Big Tobacco

965 words - 4 pages tobacco companies knew that they were putting their customers at risk, yet denied it, and did nothing about it. Also, knowing that they too were at risk, many non-smokers believed that they too had had their rights infringed upon, as second-hand smoke became a large issue as well. Along with the help of former tobacco executive, turned whistleblower, Jeffery Wigand (who testified against the companies claiming he, as well as others, knew about the

Doubts Over the Effectiveness of Free Trade Economic Theory

940 words - 4 pages . (Krugman P. R., 1987, p. 133). While this approach supported the existence of trade as opposed to no trade, it began to move away from free trade as the only answer in international economic theory. Consequently, while government intervention does not always work, it has become more of the norm in current international trade. However, as Krugman points out, “[e]ven in a world characterized by increasing returns and imperfect competition, budget

Cost of Free Music Downloading

1206 words - 5 pages music for free is very costly to the music industry; it violates domestic and international laws; and you become more vulnerable to computer attacks. "As a consequence of global and U.S.-based piracy of sound recordings, the U.S. economy loses $12.5 billion in total output annually. Output includes revenue and related measures of economic performance" (Siwek). Businesses that produce, sell and advertise music are forced to go into bankruptcy, lay

Cost Effectiveness of Mid-level Providers

2138 words - 9 pages The purpose of this study is to examine the cost effectiveness of mid level providers, such as physician assistants, compared to physicians. In order to thoroughly evaluate the difference in cost one must look at more than one aspect of the physician assistant versus the classic physician. From a purely economic standpoint one needs to address the cost of education, differences in the way patients are treated based on the kind of medicine

Diversity: Current Policies in the Workplace

1310 words - 5 pages Diversity: Current Policies in the workplaceThe face of the business world is global. This globalization has led to business leaders examining the need to address the complex issue of diversity in the workplace and how to use diversity as a competitive advantage. Unfortunately, not all companies are addressing diversity with the same passion as others. What are the best practices that have been utilized by leaders in diversity? According to

The Effects of Tobacco

928 words - 4 pages % of the deaths in that year; about one third of those deaths can be directly attributed to smoking caused cancers. Recent research has also showed that the danger of prolonged cigarette smoking is greater than it was thought originally. It has now been proven that if someone begins smoking as a teenager, and does not quit, by the time they are in their middle to old ages, half of their body will be killed by tobacco. This rate is proven likely

The Liability of Tobacco Makers

932 words - 4 pages The Liability of Tobacco Makers Cigarettes have an affect on almost everyone, even if a person does not smoke. A man name Charles Green was affected by cigarettes, even though he never smoked a cigarette in his life. Green is 39 years old, and he used to be a very athletic person. That is, until he began working for a company full of smokers. Green worked behind a desk in an office building where everyone around him smoked. He was shoved

The Effects of Smoking Tobacco

1003 words - 4 pages Although it remains a large portion of the U.S’ economy, tobacco smoking can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders that affect the user. The effects of smoking tobacco not only affect the user but surrounding people as well: permanently destroying their lungs and children, increasing the chances of diseases and of cancer. Diseases caused by the effects of smoking or second hand smoke may lead to emphysema. To start, even after only a few

Similar Essays

Analysis Og Smoke Free Laws And Policies

2441 words - 10 pages laws that prohibit smoking in restaurants and bars are becoming commonplace in this country. For example, Boston and New York City recently passed sweeping policies that ban indoor smoking. More than 10 years of practical business experience and more than 30 credible academic studies show that going smoke-free is cost-free.”(Cassem, 2003) This is suspect. In the July 2000 issue of Contemporary Economic Policy, John Dunham and Michael L. Marlow

James Waerengaahika Maxwell's Speach To Submission On The Smoke Free Environments (Tobacco Plain Packaging) Amendment Bill 2013

650 words - 3 pages The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan outlawed women from revealing any part of their bodies excluding their hands and faces. This is done so as to save the male populous from concupiscent compulsion, achieving no good. These Afghani leaders maintain that the government should decide what is good for people, so stopping them seeing things that might lead them wayward. It seems a lot of Kiwi politicians concur. Perhaps they do not always see eye to

The Effects Of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Among Children With Asthma

2135 words - 9 pages conducted by Kovess et al. (2013) they found that most Western European parents tended to smoke near children; secondly, their studied demonstrated that if the parent had certain level of education such as college, they will not smoke closed by their child. Thirdly, Kovess et al. (2013) studied shown that some countries lack of tobacco control policies, or that the policies in those countries is not as strict as in other nations. Some of the

The Smoke Free Policy Essay

1658 words - 7 pages . Web. 06 Apr. 2014. "Cigarette Butts Are Toxic Waste1." Environmental Impact of Tobacco Smoking. Tobacco Free CA, 2014. Web. 24 Apr. 2014. "DermNet NZ." Smoking and Its Effects on the Skin. Allergen, 08 Apr. 2014. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. Divine, Caroline. "The Cost of Smoking: All Dollars and No Sense." Web log post. Mint.com. N.p., 19 Nov. 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. "Does Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Cause Cancer?" - Quit Smoking. Piedmont Heart