Top Down Vs Bottom Up Approaches In English For Specific Purposes (Esp)

2227 words - 9 pages

During the last decade, the spread and influence of English has contributed to the rise of an area of investigation called English for Specific Purposes (ESP). A lot of attention has been given to ESP because it is deemed an effective way of teaching English.
In the field of ESP, genre analysis has been a widely recognized concept concerning linguistic analysis of language. Since the early 80s, interest in genre-centered approaches to the analysis of written and spoken discourse has been motivated by the need to provide satisfactory models and descriptions of academic and scientific texts and to enhance the ability of non-native speaker students to understand and to produce them (Holmes, 1997).
According to Bhatia (1993a, 1993b), the notion of genre analysis offers a powerful and useful system of analysis which allows a far “thicker” observation to be made on the repeated communicative functions than that offered by any other system of analysis in existing literature. He believes that genre analysis has become a powerful and useful tool to arrive at significant form-function correlations which can be utilized for a number of applied linguistic purposes, including the teaching of English for specific purposes.
Consequently, in order to make an analysis of a particular type of text, the study of genre should be employed to obtain knowledge of how the texts are organized, what linguistic features are used, and why they are written and used by the specialist communities the way they are (Bhatia, 1993a, 1993b).
Genre is an instance of a successful achievement of a specific communicative purpose using conventionalized knowledge of linguistic and discoursal resources (Bhatia, 1993a: 16).
Genre analysis is a study of the language of academic and professional texts that provides explanation of socio-cultural, institutional and organizational constraints and expectations that influence the nature of a particular discourse-genre
(Bhatia, 1993a: 10).
Move is a unit that relates both to the writer’s purpose and to the content that s/he wishes to communicate (Dudley and John, 1998: 89).
Step is a lower level text unit than the move that provides a detailed perspective on the options open to the writer in setting out the moves in the text (Dudley and
John, 1998: 89).
The term ‘genre,’ which has a long history in literary studies, has been of growing interest in language teaching and learning, especially in the field of English for specific purposes (ESP). Most ESP researches have used genre theory as a tool for analyzing and teaching the language required of non-native speakers in academic and professional settings because the overall concern of ESP is to assist students in recognizing and learning the patterns of language required in various academic and professional contexts (Swales, 1990; Bhatia, 1993a; Henry and Roseberry, 1996; Dudley and John, 1998). According to Hammond and Derewianka (2001), genre refers to the recognizable and...

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