Total Quality Management
This is the attempt by a business to stop errors and waste from
occurring at all levels within the organisation, and to try to
encourage all employees to make ‘quality’ paramount within their daily
activities (whether in production, marketing or personnel). There are
a number of components of T.Q.M:
1) Internal relationships between workers and their superiors and
subordinates are seen to be as important as the external relationships
that exist between the business and its customers and suppliers.
2) TQM must be seen to be a policy that is followed by, and has the
commitment of, all workers, from senior management to shop floor
3) The business must monitor all its activities and processes in order
to identify any areas for improvement and to ensure that quality is
4) Team-working is important, since a group of people working together
will develop a wider range of skills, co-operation, and higher
motivation than if workers were performing repetitive tasks on their
5) Regular market research must be undertaken to ensure that customers
are happy with the level of service that they receive (any complaints
can be used to improve the existing systems).
This is a group of workers that meets at regular intervals during the
working week in order to identify any problems with quality within
production, to consider the alternative solutions to these problems,
and to then recommend to management the solution that they believe
will be the most successful.
The members of the quality circle are also involved in the
implementation and monitoring of the solution.
This should help to improve the level of motivation amongst the
workers because it makes each person in the group feel valued and that
they are making a significant contribution to the improvements on the
This is the ultimate objective for a business, to produce every
product with no defects, therefore eliminating waste and the time
taken to correct mistakes.
Zero defects can lead to an improved business and customer reputation,
as well as increasing levels of both sales and profitability. In order
for the objective of zero defects to be achieved, it requires the
involvement of every employee in the business, making sure that they
are all committed and suitably trained.
Continuous Improvement (Kaizen)
Kaizen is a Japanese word which means ‘change for the better’.
A business will often be facing increasing demands from customers to
add new features to their products, as well as facing pressures...