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Totalitarismus. Essay

3505 words - 14 pages

Totalitarismus.DefinitionenundTheorienGliederung1. EinleitungS. 31.1 BegriffsgeschichteS. 32. Definitionen von TotalitarismusS. 52.1 ArendtS. 52.2 Friedrich/BrzezinskiS. 52.3 LöwensteinS. 62.4 LinzS. 72.5 MerkelS. 83. Problematisierung des Begriffs TotalitarismusS. 103.1 Totalitarismus als Phänomen des 20. JahrhundertsS. 103.2 Totalitarismus als säkulare ReligionS. 113.3 Verhältnis des Totalitarismus zum Verfassungs- und RechtsstaatS. 123.4 Verhältnis des Totalitarismus zu Pluralismus und ZivilgesellschaftS. 134. ResümeeS. 145. LiteraturverzeichnisS. 151. EINLEITUNGTotalitarismus dient als eingeführter Typus sein nunmehr einem knappen Jahrhundert der Erfassung und Analyse von politischen Systemen. Schon der Begriff schöpft sich aus der Wurzel "total", also allumfassend, und fand seinen Eingang in die politologische Diskussion mit dem Aufkommen der Faschistischen und Kommunistischen Regime in Italien, Russland und Deutschland. Heute, nach dem Zerfall der kommunistischen Staaten in Mittel- und Osteuropa und der Sowjetunion, sieht sich die Forschung erneut vor der Aufgabe, die Erscheinung Totalitarismus zu untersuchen, diesmal jedoch tendenziell eher aus der Retrospektive.Gegenstand dieser Arbeit soll es sein, die langjährige Entwicklung des Totalitarismus nachzuzeichnen, Konzeptionen und Strukturen zusammenfassend zu veranschaulichen und wichtige Stufen der Veränderung aufzuzeigen und zu bewerten. Dies soll chronologisch auf der Basis ausgewählter führender Theoretiker dieser Thematik geschehen und herausarbeiten, inwieweit die Konzeptionen der sich wandelnden Praxis gerecht wurden und in sich geschlossen und stimmig waren.Weiterhin möchte ich einige Kernaspekte der Diskussion herausgreifen und im historisch-politischen Kontext problematisieren.1.1 BegriffsgeschichteDer Terminus "Totalitarismus" war im Verlauf seiner Begriffsgeschichte immer wieder umstritten und nahm in seiner theoretischen Entwicklung bisweilen einen unterschiedlichen Bedeutungsinhalt und Bedeutungsumfang an." (Merkel 1999, 46)Ursprünglich wurde Totalitarismus als kritischer Kampfbegriff gegen das "sistema totalitario" eingeführt, also gegen den im italienischen Faschismus unter Mussolini propagierten totalen Staat. . In Ermangelung einer passenden Alternativbezeichnung übernahm man später den neuen Terminus gegen das NS-deutsche System und Goebbels 1931 ausgerufenen "Totalen Staat". Auf wissenschaftlicher Seite war Waldemar Gurian 1931 der Erste, der den Begriff sowohl auf Nazi-Deutschland, als auch auf die Sowjetunion anwendete.Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg und während des Kalten Krieg wurde der Begriff Totalitarismus in die politische Auseinandersetzung hineingezogen und erhielt, wiederum als Kampfbegriff, eine negative Konnotation als polemisch-propagandistisches Werturteil gegen den Sowjetsozialismus. Totalitarismus wurde zum Synonym für gescheiterte Demokratisierung, Manipulation der...

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