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Tourette Syndrome's Description And Analysis

1250 words - 5 pages

Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics usually starting in childhood and often accompanied by poor impulse control (Chiu, 2013, p.405). The disorder is named for Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette, the pioneering French neurologist who in 1885 first described the condition in an 86-year-old French woman (ninds.nih.gov, 2013). Tourette syndrome was once considered to be a rare a condition that causes a person to make repeated, quick movements or sounds that they cannot control. These movements or sounds are called tics, but this symptom is only present in a minority of cases.
Tics are the most common symptom of Tourette syndrome. A tic is an involuntary, repetitive movement of muscles usually in the face, neck, shoulders, trunk and hands (Diane, 2011, p.662). Symptoms of Tourette syndrome is often first noticed during childhood, between ages 7 and 10. Most children with Tourette syndrome also have other medical problems such as ADHD and OCD Tourette syndrome exhibit multiple behavioral symptoms including ADHD and OCD, which, like Tourette syndrome, are clinically diagnosed without testing (Chiu, 2013, p.406). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, motor and vocal tics are classified as simple or complex (Diane, 2011, p.663). Simple motor tics include eye blinking, neck jerking, shoulder shrugging, head banging, head turning, tongue protrusion, nail biting, hair pulling, and facial grimacing (Diane, 2011, p.663). Some examples of complex motor tics are facial gestures, grooming behaviors, hitting or biting oneself, jumping, hopping, touching, squatting, retracing steps, smelling an object, and imitating the movements of someone who is being observed also now as echopraxia (Diane, 2011, p.663). Simple vocal tics include coughing, throat clearing, grunting, sniffing, snorting, hissing, clicking, yelping, and barking (Diane, 2011, p.663). Complex vocal tics may involve repeating words out of context; using socially unacceptable or repeating the last-heard sound, word, or phrase of another person (Diane, 2011, p.663). To be diagnosed with Tourette you would have had many motor tics and one or more vocal tics, although these tics may not have occurred at the same time. You would also have had tics that occur many times a day, nearly every day or on and off, for a period of more than 1 year. During this period, there must not have been a tic-free period of more than 3 months in a row. The tics should have started before the age 18, and no other brain problem that could be a likely cause of the symptoms. In contrast to primary OCD, in Tourette syndrome, symptoms rarely relate to hygiene and compulsive cleaning; the behaviors more commonly involve symmetry; requiring constant rearrangement, forced touching; fear of harming self or family; and an overwhelming desire to do thing a certain way were you feel it is correct.(Chiu, 2013,p.406)....

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