How a community responds to the opportunities and challenges of tourism and festival depends to a large extent on its attitude to the respective industry. Values and beliefs held by individuals in a community are inextricably linked and shape people’s attitudes and the way they act in specific situations (Derrett, 2005: 40). Derrett (2005) says that values, interests and aspirations of individuals are influenced by their natural environment. How this leads to a sense of community that influences how the community celebrates; that affects the community’s wellbeing, which is shared with visitors who in turn interact with host community; they now have a shared image and identity to reflect and ...view middle of the document...
This is further illustrated by the three contact situations which can influence local values and attitudes (de Kadt 1979: 50):
I. When the tourist purchases a good or service from a resident.
II. When the tourist and resident find themselves side by side at an attraction such as beach or golf course, or a local activity, such as a festival or nightclub.
III. When the two parties come face to face with the object of exchanging information and ideas.
de Kadt (1979) suggest that the first two instances – the transitory and commercial exchange (I and II) far outweighs the third. As outlined by Ryan (1991), “Tourism often puts a way of life, culture and values at tremendous risk”. Ethically speaking, tourist should be conscious, the residents will formulate opinions about the country he/she is coming from. Consequently, local inhabitants should be viewed on equal terms, and not as objects, for it is forbidden to manipulate, humiliate or take unfair advantage of them, regardless of their level of education, color of skin or customs (Singh et al 2003: 143).
The economic impact of festival and tourism are often perceived positively by the residents. Festival and Tourism acts as a catalyst to help decrease unemployment by creating new job opportunities (Liu, Sheldom & Var, 1986), Improve the nations cheque-book and help bring a balance of payments (Dogan, 1987). Tourism if not well planned and controlled, may lead to negative impacts or reduce the effectiveness of positive ones (Tatoglu 2012: 746). The prices of goods might go up with the increasing demand from foreign customers and demand for accommodations. Tatoglu (2012) argues that new employment opportunities allows the locals to migrate to the resort areas, creating new social and economic problems. Tatoglu (2012) argues that tourism might cause a gradual change in a society values, beliefs and cultural practices. By observing the tourists, local resident might change their lifestyles (dressing, eating, recreational activities etc). One negative consequence of this are perceived by Gee et al (1997) suggests that tourism distracts family structure and values, and also leads to increase in divorce rates and prostitutions. Concomitantly, with this gain in status, tourism among women are perceived positively such as more freedom, more opportunities to work, increase self-worked and respect, better education, higher standard of living with higher family income and status (Ramukumba et al, 2011: 59). Although, the influence might be considered as a positive impact as it increases the standard of living of the local residents. It can be considered as a negative impact as it leads to acculturation (Brunt and Courtney, 1999). Acculturation occurs when two or more cultures meet each other for a continuous period and ideas are exchanged (Liu and Var, 1987).
Much of the employment associated with tourism sector pays low wages with menial income, while most of the higher paid jobs in tourism are held by...