Tracing Chemical Evolution Essay

881 words - 4 pages

Introduction:
Evolutionary pathways can be traced through several different means. Two of the most popular are looking at the phenotypic signs like body structure or appendages things that can be seen, another popular way of tracing is similar structures that have developed or gone away like a tail bone on a human. Another way to track evolution is to look at the development of proteins and other chemicals in the organism’s body.
Through tracking the evolution of chemicals a person can see how close two organisms are related. This method of tracking is useful with proteins like Pax6 a gene that controls eye development. Organisms that have an eyes can be found to have a variation of ...view middle of the document...

McClure is to use the Human Genome app on the I-Pad. The method that was preformed used was different, it starts with conducting a Google search with arrestin in the search box which lead to PhosphoSitePlus, was a website that had information about arrestin. After the website is pulled up it will show basic information on arrestin afterwards preform a BLAST search in the human genome, and then in the other organisms genomes. BLAST searches can be performed at www.blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. After the specific BLAST searches to obtain the sequences are preformed, use the tab BLASTP to perform a protein sequence alignment. After the alignment is preformed the percentages must be compared, and are used to find the amount of similarities between the organisms and humans.
Results:
Organism Name: Percent Matched: Percent Gap:
Homo Sapien N/A N/A
Xenopus 90% 5%
Danio rerio 89% 5%
Mus Musculus 91% 7%

The first organism the Xenopus had a 90% alignment match, and had a 5% gap. The second organism the Danio rerio had an 89% match and a 5% gap. On the Mus musculus the amount that was a perfect match with the Homo sapiens was 91%, and the amount that was gaped was 7%.
Conclusion:
Arrestin as a protein is found in all four of the organisms. Homo sapiens and Mus musculus were the two closes in terms of alignment and gaps. The hypothesis is held up through the alignment. After looking at the lineage of the four organisms we can see that the Mus Musculus is the closes to the Homo sapien because their lineage does not break at the Euteleostomi clade. Both the Xenopus and the Danio rerio split...

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