Tracking C3 vs. C4 Grains in Beer
"Beer. This beverage is derived from the brewing and fermenting of malted grain or cereal, usually barley and other cereals. The term "beer" is used generically to refer to any fermented drink made from malted cereal grains and comes from the Latin word bibere, meaning "to drink." The brew is flavored with hops, and the alcoholic content in contemporary beers in America is generally about 4 to 5 percent by volume. In the U.S., beer is normally taken to mean lager beer, which is brewed in a bottom- fermentation technique. Other types are classed as ale, porter, stout, malt liquor, bock, steam beer, or sometimes according to region of origin such as Pilsener, or Dortmunder. The origins of beer and brewing can be traced to ancient Egypt, where barley was used as a brewing cereal. And during the Middle Ages in Europe beer was a common beverage. Until about 1840, however, virtually all beer was of the top-fermentation variety-ale, porter, stout, and what was called stong, or common beer, brewed by the common brewer. Then in the 1830's a new yeast was discovered in Germany and introduced in America, probably in 1840. This yeast settled at the bottom of fermenting vats and resulted in a lighter, more effervescent brew, known as lager because if had to be stored for a few months after fermentation. Lager became very popular in German countries and in the U.S. Today about 90 percent of American beer is of the lager type"(Downard 19).
The origins of beer and brewing can be traced back more than 5,500 years to Ancient Egypt. Archaeologists from the museum of the University of Pennsylvania and the American Schools of Oriental Research found pottery with "two brewery workers using long poles to stir the contents of a brewery vat", which was one such discovery in 1935. The drawing was baked on, and guessed to be from the 37th Century B.C. Accompanying this artifact are many written records about beer. Some of these records are the Egyptian Book of the Dead, roughly 5,000 years old, talks about beer made of barley, the Code of Hammurabi, in 2,100 B.C., depicts tavern keepers in Bablyonia, and the Extract from the Mirror of Chinese History, in the 23rd Century B.C., beer, or "kiu" was known to the Chinese (Persons 3-5).
In the Middle Ages, monasteries and the manorial houses of the feudal lords brewed and dispensed beer. An artifact dating back to 1397, a preserved woodcut, showed a monk at work in the brew house. By the 14th Century, trade of beer was predominant in such countries as Hamburg, Austria, the British Isles, and Scandinavia. Beer was a popular means of income in this time and perked the interest for apprenticeships, standards of practice and quality and fixed prices. In 1502, Christopher Columbus "discovered" the various types of brew made by both North and South American natives, which brewing had been going on hundreds of years before then. It is shown, in records such as A Relation, or Journal, of the...