Tracking Metastasis And Tricking Cancer Essay

1329 words - 5 pages

Carcinoma is a cancer that begins to develop in epithelial cells. These cells include the lining or tissue of an organ or in the skin (Australian Institute of Health Welfare & Australasian Association of Cancer, 2012). There are two types of carcinoma cells, basal cells and squamous cells (American Cancer Society, 2012). Basal cell carcinomas are the cells that develop in the basal cell layer of the epidermis (American Cancer Society, 2012). Squamous cell carcinomas are cells that are more likely to develop in the fatty tissue beneath the skin (American Cancer Society, 2012). The squamous cell carcinoma are more likely to spread to the lymph nodes and surrounding tissues in the body (American Cancer Society, 2015. Metastasis, known as secondary cancer, is the process by which tumours spread to different areas of the body (Marx, 2013). It has been suggested that cancer cells shed and move through the bloodstream of the body, and eventually develop and grow in other areas of the body (Marx, 2013). (Marx, 2013)
Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes which help rid the body of waste and damage cancer cells from the body (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2012). Lymphoma begins when lymphocytes (white blood cells) multiply, eventually producing cancer cells that infect the body (AIHW, 2012). Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are the two main types of lymphoma (AIHW, 2012).
Benign: Benign tumours are non-cancerous that do not spread across the body (Australian Institute of Health Welfare & Australasian Association of Cancer, 2012). They do however; grow to be very large (Australian Institute of Health Welfare [AIHW] & Australasian Association of Cancer, 2012).
Tumour markers are detectable cancer cells that are found in the spinal fluid, urine or blood (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011). They can include enzymes, hormones, antigens or genes (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011).Tumour markers are beneficial, in that they are able to identify high risk cancers in individuals (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011). They also help by diagnosing different cancer types (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011).There are different markers that are able to identify different cancer types (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011). For example, Prostrate-specific antigen (PSA) identifies prostate cancer cells and a-fetoprotein (AFP) identifies Hepatic cancer cells (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011). There is a disadvantage of using tumour markers, and that is that some non-cancerous tissues produce markers (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011). Therefore, to determine whether a patient has cancer, additional tests are necessary (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011).
Sentinel nodes are lymph nodes that receive the bodies waste first (Craft, Gordon &...

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