Transfer of Training
Researchers have defined transfer of training as the degree to which the trainee applies what he has learned from a particular training. In other words, it can be stated as the degree to which the behavior is repeated by the trainees in the new situation. Transfer of training usually refers to the application of the trained knowledge, skills and attitude back o the job. Experts from different fields have defined transfer of training in similar but slightly different ways but the common theme of all the definition is focused on application of the newly learned KSA’s acquired in one context to another context (UNDP, 2006).
As the business environment is getting challenging day by day so organizations are investing billions of dollars in this area of trailing and development and their main concern is to improve the individual and the organizations performance. Recent estimates shows that around $55.3 billion to $200 billion are being invested in the training and development area so this investment has not only increased the interest in the training but also there is a growing concern in the organizations that these investments must be justified in terms of improvement in the organizational performance i.e. increased productivity, reduced error and improved market share (A.Cannon-Bowers, 2001).
Literature shows that there are different types of transfer of learning and awareness of such types can help the organization in deciding that what transfer objectives they are trying to achieve and can design their training program accordingly. One of the popular types of TOT is near vs. far learning. Barnard and Jacobs (2007) refer near transfer as the application of the learning to the similar situation in which the training occurred where as far transfer is application of the trained KSA’s to contexts different to those where the original learning events occurred. There are several other types like positive vs negative transfer, low road vs high road transfer etc. These types can help the organizations to decide whether which type of goals should be achieved via particular training and up till which time.
Since two decades, researchers noted that there is depressing rate of transfer of training in the organizations and this state has been named as “Transfer Problem”. It has been reported that only 10% of the learning is being transferred to the actual job. Saks and Belcourt (2006) reported that approximately 62% of the employees transfer the learned KSA’s on their job immediately after the training have been received. But after six months only 44% are left that apply the learned information and after one year that figures further reduces to 34%.
These findings present a serious problem to the organizations given that transfer of training is that point by which training actually influences the outcomes and the results at both the organization and individual level. So it has become significant for the organizations to focus on the...