Netball uses a combination of each energy systems. It is a fast paced game, with lots of stop-starting, abrupt direction changes, and short, sharp movements. For this reason, netball uses the alactacid, ATP/PC system. This caters for one explosive muscular contraction using ATP lasting 1-2 seconds, and then 10-12 seconds of creatine phosphate (CP) after that. This might be for the centre pass, or any short movements. The Lactic acid system would then take over for 10-60 seconds of high intensity movement, which could be for running or dodging down the court. The body would now progress from the anaerobic system to the aerobic, to meet the demands of the activity. This will last for one hour ...view middle of the document...
Circuit training develops muscular endurance, strength, and aerobic capacity and is a general conditioner activity. It allows for the progressive overload principle to be activated and become effective.
Resting heart rate - Improvements will see that it is lowered, making the cardiovascular system more efficient. This enables the athlete to have a faster recovery period. To test for this, the pulse (heart rate) is measured at rest and during work.
Stroke volume - measured by aortic pressure during the systolic beat (subtracting systolic volume from the diastolic volume). Improvements in this will increase stroke volume, delivering more oxygen to working muscles, increasing performance.
Cardiac output - will increase with training and helps the body to adjust to exercise to improve efficiency. Multiplying heart rate and stroke volume tests this.
Oxygen uptake - The 12-minute run and beep test are each tests for aerobic fitness and oxygen uptake. Improvements in oxygen uptake build endurance and enable better oxygen delivery.
Lung capacity - cannot really be improved, except by a slight amount. It is tested by a pulmonary function test.
Haemoglobin level - rises with training, and assists capacity of body to carry oxygen through cells. A blood test can measure these improvements.
Muscle hypertrophy - can be tested by the vertical jump test, and improvements will develop strength in athlete, to better their performance.
Short/Fast twitch fibres - General improvements seen are better muscle efficiency by increased capillary supply, higher production of ATP, fuel and energy, and increase of oxygen transportation....