This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Transgenic Species Essay

1131 words - 5 pages

IntroductionA transgenic species refers to an organism whose genome has been deliberately modified by the transfer of one or more genes from another organism. This changes an organism's genetic composition and its physical characteristics artificially, as opposed to through gene mutations and artificial selection. There are a number of methods used to create transgenic species but as transgenic technology is still relatively new, most of these however, are still in a developmental stage. Transgenic technology has enabled scientists to break through the 'species barrier', overcoming limitations or selective breeding. There are many uses for transgenic species, there are a number of ethical concerns with the procedure, limiting its current usage. Transgenic organisms can be created in animals, plants and bacteria, mice are currently the most used species in transgenics due to their short generation time and well defined geneticsMethodThere are a number of different methods for obtaining and transferring genes to create a transgenic organism. The three main methods of creating transgenic organisms are:1. Embryonic stem cell- mediated gene transfer'This method involves prior insertion of the desired DNA sequence by homologous recombination into an in vitro culture of embryonic stem (ES) cells.' Stem cells are undefined and are the basis of the development of all structures within an organism. An advantage of this method is that it allows for a more precise targeting of defined mutations in the gene via homologous recombination.2. DNA microinjectionThis method involves the direct microinjection of one or a number of genes from one organism into another. The gene is injected into the pronucleus of a fertilised ovum. The ovum is inserted into the ovaduct of the female that has been induced to act as a recipient by mating with a vasectomised male. The injection of DNA is a random process and it is likely that the DNA will not insert itself into a location that will enable its characteristic to be evident in the organism.3. Retrovirus-mediated gene transferThis method increases the chance of the gene's characteristic showing up in the organism. It involves the transfer of gene, mediated by a carrier or vector such as a virus or plasmid. Retroviruses are commonly used as they have the ability to infect host cells. Offspring that are created from this method are chimeric . This method, however has a low success rate as the transgenic organisms born have a high fatality rate.There are three methods used for obtaining a specific gene to be transferred into another organism:1. isolating it from chromosomal DNA2. Chemically synthesising it from nucleotide sub-units3. Making a copy of it from a templateUsesThe development of transgenic organisms has a number of uses such as in medical research, the pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, agriculture and fish culture. Many of its uses have strict restrictions due to ethical and environmental concerns.Transgenic species...

Find Another Essay On Transgenic species

Transgenic Animals in the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases

2124 words - 9 pages generated to aid in the study of neurodegenerative diseases. In the study of neurodegenerative diseases, transgenic animals are used to model these diseases for researchers to learn from. Quite frequently, mice are the preferred species of animals for modeling because of how similar they are to humans. There have been some studies, such as Götz et al.’s, where fish, worms, flies, and other species are genetically modified (94). However, with

Biology Research Notes: Ethics of Genetically Modified Animals

997 words - 4 pages pig's genome and cannot be bred out.(2006, July 20). Biotechnology: Transgenic animals. Retrieved March 11, 2008, from BBC Web site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/animals/using/biotechnology_2.shtml•Combining species of animals is an unethical alteration of the natural order of the universe.•It is unethical to modify an animals genetic make-up without previous knowledge of whether or not the modification will have any detrimental

Is the Use of Transgeneric Organisms Essential to the Advancement of Therapeutic Medicine?

1497 words - 6 pages 3. Process of findings Upon doing research on the topic of genetic modification and the use of transgenic organisms in the advancement of therapeutic medicine, one finds much information containing different viewpoints as to whether genetic modification and the creation of transgenic organisms is or is not essential to the development of therapeutic medicine. Therefore, to arrive at a definite conclusion, one must look further into the

Were Influenced Throughout Time and Challenged

2323 words - 9 pages influence coming from many that has altered the thinking of Western civilization.2) Use of transgenic species Transgenic species are genetically modified organisms, whose genetic material has been altered as a result of genetic engineering.Transgenic species are used for many reasons. The two most common reasons are: -For specific economic traits: For example, to help in the treatment of human emphysema, transgenic cattle were created to produce milk

The Influence of Domesticated Animals on Human Welfare

1362 words - 5 pages Murphy 3933S). The use of selective breeding on livestock (as well as other domestic animals such as companion animals) has also brought forth a greater variety of animals whose qualities are extremely beneficial to mankind (Transgenic Animals). The selection for “desired traits” allows farmers and breeders to manipulate a given species in order for it to exhibit qualities which can be beneficial to their business (Transgenic Animals

Genetic Engineering in Agriculture

4138 words - 17 pages substitution of genes into agricultural species, biodiversity can flourish to improve social and economic development. Although methods of gene and DNA implantation quickly develop advanced products, even precise genetic alterations do not ensure that the environment will remain balanced or that changes in the genome will not occur. With careful design and a good understanding of transgenic organisms, minimal ecological and social risks will occur with

genetically modified organisms and how they affect humans

713 words - 3 pages perfected making these organisms and have successfully developed thousands of them. By doing this they have introduced many of them into the wild and the have shown resistance to certain pests and diseases. They have also (in certain cases) reproduced with other of there species introducing that specific mutation to the whole species. There is also a noble effect to these providing food to third world countries also the transgenic crops are easier to grow and stay fresh longer

Transgenic Food, Myths vs. Realities

924 words - 4 pages that GM Food production and consumption generates in a global scale. Genetically Modified Foods should be banned because it generates a negative impact on humans’ health, affects the environment and harms the third world nations. Genetically modified foods affect humans’ health by weakening the immunologic system, giving rise to degenerative diseases and causing the appearance of new viruses. Transgenic food alters the immune system occasioning

Is the Use of Transgeneric Organisms Essential to the Advancement of Therapeutic Medicine?

2097 words - 9 pages 1. Introduction Genetic modification is currently at the forefront of modern science and is being utilised in various fields such as medicine, agriculture and industry. Genetically Modified or transgenic organisms are organisms that have been genetically altered in a specific way for a particular purpose. It is now possible for scientists to exchange genes from one species of organism to another. This process is performed when certain

The effects of genetic engineering

1127 words - 5 pages scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins. (Webster)Genetic engineering in animals is a very broad topic. It includes all types of manipulation and changing of the genetic code of animals of any species or complexity. By this definition genetic engineering of animals has

Direct methods for transformation of plants or plant cells

1154 words - 5 pages , Bettany, Timms & Morris, 1998). Besides, microprojectile bombardment also able to do the transformation on recalcitrant species and then, scientist able to study of basic plant development processes. Microprojectiles bombardment method provides an application in practical genetic engineering of plants. For example, this method open the way for the application of genetic engineering techniques in sugarcane improvement and confirms the promise of

Similar Essays

Transgenic Animal With Human Dna Essay

632 words - 3 pages animals, although different species from us should be treated the same. For years, scientist have been trying to successfully conduct xenotransplantation, however it did not show promising results. Animals such as primate and pigs are the common animals used in xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation is where the organism of a transgenic animal with human organism is transplanted into a human body. On October 26, 1984, xenotransplantation took

System Has Been Established Essay

1483 words - 6 pages %, Lucca et al. (2001) for rice 41 %, Feeney and Punja (2003) for hemp 31 %, He et al. (2006) for cucumber 23 %, Aswath et al. (2006) for onion 23 % or 27 %, Degenhardt et al. (2007) for apple up to 24 %, Ballester et al. (2008) for citrange 30 %, and Briza et al. (2008) for potato up to 53 %, Briza et al. (2010) for lettuce up to 25%. On the other hand, there are plant species where mannose-based selection of transgenic plants does not work with

Adfa Essay

722 words - 3 pages A Discourse on the Ethical use of Transgenic or Genetically Modified Organisms In the year of 1543, laying on his death bed, Nicholas Copernicus published the On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. The notions and ideas that were presented in Copernicus’s book have not only led us to believe that the Earth orbits around the Sun, but rather have led the general populace to have an intrinsic belief in the scientific method. Today, this very

Biotechnology. An International Biosafety Protocol Created To Establish And Maintain Control Over The Products Designed With Biotechnology

1725 words - 7 pages transferring genes from one species into the [DNA] of another - has the potential to alleviate . . .' (8) this and many other problems facing the world in the near future. Even though biotechnology has already shown dramatic results in the creation of beneficial transgenic (genetically engineered) species, many countries and researchers are '. . . quite leery about the uses of biotechnology' (8). Therefore, an international biosafety protocol should be