Transition planning is essential for helping individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities transition from high school to adulthood. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [IDEA], 2004) requires transition planning for all students with disabilities beginning by age 14 (20 U.S.C. 1401(a)(19)). Transition planning includes a focus on activities as employment, recreation, postsecondary education, self-determination, and community living and participation after the student graduates (34 C.F.R. 601(d)(1)(A)). IDEA mandates transition services be part of each student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP). Parents, the adolescents, and the educators, transition coordinators, and clinical staff (e.g. school counselor) at the school give input and develop goals to be document that will help the adolescents develop the skills, supports, and relationships they will need to achieve their desired postsecondary goals.
Despite legislation like IDEA, the post secondary outcomes for individuals with and intellectual or developmental disability have been poor. This literature review will examine the transition planning process for adolescents with an intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD). For the purposes of this paper, I/DD will be defined as a disability that is manifest before the age of 22, significantly limits the individual in 3 or more areas of major life activity (self-care, receptive and expressive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity to live independently, and economic self-sufficiency), and will require lifelong services and supports. It will explore will give an overview of suggested tips for transition planning interventions in different parts of the county. It will also explore the role key partners’ play in transition planning for adolescents. A literature search was conducted through ERIC, Education Full Text, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL with Full Text, Family & Society Studies Worldwide, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO with the key words transition planning, developmental disability, educators, parents, and transition coordinators from 2004-2014. A detailed review of the reference list from relevant sources was also done.
Postsecondary Outcomes for Adolescents with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities
Post secondary outcomes have not been positive for students with disabilities (Hughes & Avoke, 2010). Positive postsecondary outcomes include those that meet the student’s aspirations for career, a college degree, independent living, and a network of friends. Many young adults leave high school without the skills and supports they need to meet their dreams and aspiration for adulthood (Hughes & Carter, 2011). Youth with disabilities are faced with poor outcomes such as low graduation and postsecondary enrollment rates and increased disengagement, unemployment, and underemployment when compared to...