Trevino & Nelson Ethical Decision Making (T&N EDM) Model
1. Gather the Facts.
Safety doesn't sale - Trunk space is what sales
Standard guidelines for the automotive community were in place
3 teenage girls died
Pinto fuel tank had a known issue
Product on the market 2 years
Cost of replacement gas tank $11
Cost of human life $2000
Received reports that Pinto was exploding (multiple cases)
2. Define the Ethical Issues (I) in moral terms (e.g., Is X action morally right, given Y?).
Is it morally right to continue selling the defective car that has a chance to cause harm to a human life without recalling given that you know the solution & cost associated?
3. Identify the affected Parties.
Recall Coordinator - Decision Maker
Ford Motor Co.
Employees of the company
Regulators - NTHSA
Competitors (specifically, Japanese and German)
4. Identify the Consequences. State: (a) the consequentialist principle (CP) used to assess the actions of the decision maker (e.g., egoism, utilitarianism); (b) the standard implicit in this principle (e.g., action in my long-term self-interest); (c) the key potential consequences for each of the affected parties; (d) the extent to which each consequence undermines (U) or supports (S) the issue based on the CP selected.
Utilitarianism - "greatest balance b/w good & bad"
Iacocca & Ford Co.
Increase (short-term)/Decrease Rev. (long-term)
Increase PR issues
5. Identify the Obligations. State: (a) the deontological principle (DP) used to assess the actions of the decision maker (e.g., Kant's ethics, prima facie); (b) the standard implicit in this principle (e.g. categorical imperative - Could the action be willed into universal law?); (c) the key obligations of the decision maker for each of the affected parties; (d) the extent to which each obligation undermines (U) or supports (S) the issue based on the DT selected.
6. Consider the decision maker's Character and Integrity, (Virtue Ethics) assuming an aspiration to be an authentic leader. Standard Implicit: An action is morally right if it meets the highest ethical standards of the relevant moral community. State: (a) the...