Furkan Gungoren S1235710
International Politics 115
27 April 2014
Tribalism (Jihad) versus Globalism (‘McWorld’): a threat for democracy?
The cases of Saudi Arabia and Egypt
Different developments of diverse scales ensure the world to be a place of multiple thoughts due to distinct impressions of human beings. Pessimistic impressions are frequently formed when two phenomena become polarized. Thoughts are designated to be contradictory when those two phenomena are considered as factors, which have the ability to threaten phenomena when placed in opposed positions. The meanings of concepts change according to the adherents who believe that a particular concept has to be applied in a certain sense. Notions of concepts do change due to the fact that diverse attitudes are adopted towards them. Whereas a group of people might assume that a particular conceptualization has to be considered as propitious since its auspicious sides are greater than its abusive sides, another group of people will not agree since they will have another creed of which they conceptualize as more promising due to the fact that its auspicious sides are superlative to its possible inauspicious consequences. Developments occur since people attempt to let dominate and apply the concepts they assume to be the most excellent for humanity. There are no political thoughts that can be mentioned on what all mankind can agree on. This is also considered to be the mental analyses why ideologies are formed, which are constantly in a struggle with each other (Sartori).
In this essay, the focus will be on the theory of Benjamin Barber who claimed that the struggle between the tribalism and globalism forms a threat for democracy. Therefore first of all, the two concepts will be construed separately. The founder of the theory had in his book, which was published in 1995 titled: ‘Jihad vs. McWorld, Terrorisms Challenge to Democracy’, denoted the two concepts with the two words Jihad and ‘McWorld’ that are according to him related to the conceptions. The question why according to Barber these two words are related to the two concepts is for that reason going to be answered. Then, this theory will be separately applied on two countries that are constituted in the Middle East in order to examine whether the hypothesis is legitimate or illegitimate. After applying the theory on the two countries, the outcomes will be compared with each other. Finally, the validity of the theory will be discussed in the conclusion by involving the outcomes of the investigation of the concepts, and the result of the comparison between the two countries.
The fact that the world is becoming ‘smaller’ because distance has become a factor that is considered as irrelevant, is the development designated as globalization. Although the notion of globalization differs when it is applied on specific field researches’, according to Barber it chiefly consists of the process of making markets universal and...