This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

True Nature Of Prions Essay

1330 words - 5 pages

The True Nature of Prions Research conducted only over the past couple of decades has unveiled a new type of infectious agent quite unlike all currently known bacteria and viruses. This pathogen, which causes fatal damage to the brain and surrounding central nervous system of humans and other mammals, is called a prion. It has not been completely resolved as to how these agents propagate or how they are composed. The word itself derives from "˜proteinaceous infectious particle,' which refers to a recently determined hypothesis that the infectious agent causing these diseases consists only of protein, with no nucleic acid genome (all previously known pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, contain nucleic acids which enable them to reproduce). While one current hypothesis deals with the structural nature of these newly discovered agents, the other recently proposed hypothesis attempts to answer the question of replication. The new line of evidence appears to support the theory that the prion interacts with the host cells to turn on the regulator genes. This gene then begins to manufacture new proteins identical to the prion (Prescott 388-89). In an effort to support the first idea that prions have no genetic material, the scientists first subjected a prion sample to enormous amounts of ultraviolet radiation. Nucleic acids are relatively fragile molecules, and ultraviolet light easily breaks some of the bonds between the individual atoms of the genetic material. Proteins, on the other hand, form stronger intermolecular bonds and are better equipped to withstand the higher radiation levels. Using a variety of other methods to study the sample, observing things like molecular mass and particle size, the scientists found that the prion particles remained entirely intact (Prusine). Another way to damage nucleic acids is to introduce the molecule to higher temperatures. It was not surprising that the next step the researchers took was using exposing a sample of the prion material to temperatures well over 100 degrees F. If the sample were of a nucleic acid nature, especially a double stranded nucleic acid, there would be considerable untwisting of the helix or fragmentation of the molecule. Again, after molecular analysis to determine the size and molecular weight of the surviving particles, it was determined that the prion had again remained unchanged (Prusine). Electron photomicrographs of the particle were also observed to determine if any of the characteristics common to other known proteins were also apparent in the prion molecules. These micrographs clearly indicated a proteinaceous structure similar in form to another protein already found in most mammals. The intricate folding patterns of the amino acid chains formed distinct domains, clearly indicating a possible protein nature. No components common to all known viruses and bacterium were observed. The second proposed hypothesis dealt with how the prion...

Find Another Essay On True Nature Of Prions

The Inferno and The True Nature of God

1192 words - 5 pages nature of God becomes distorted in a way that must be looked at carefully because Dante's God has many flaws that go against the very beliefs of many Christians. Moreover, is the fact that Dante writes to prove the Christian beliefs and demonstrate a better description of the true nature of Hell and God. Unfortunately, all Dante really does is create a God who contradicts one of his three powers (Divine Justice, Omnipotence, and Love) no matter

The Absence of Inequality in the State of Nature and the True Nature of the Savage Man

1315 words - 6 pages their environment i.e. due to natural disasters. Natural disasters force people to migrate, allowing them to make contact with other people, forming small communities. In these communities, new needs are created, and this is when man begins his move out of the state of nature toward civility. The first man who enclosed a piece of ground and instituted the idea of private property could be considered the true founder of civil society. Rousseau

What "Great Expectations" reveals about the true nature of a gentleman

2725 words - 11 pages Trace the moral development of Pip and discuss what "Great Expectations" reveals about the true nature of a gentleman.Charles Dickens' novel, Great Expectations is in a sense a mystery story because the reader wants to find out who the benefactor was but perhaps the biggest mystery of all is who is Pip? The story is about moral maturity and the main character, Pip undergoes a constant moral maturing. Pip's original childhood innocence was

The capital-intensive nature of the economy, high levels of market concentration and the high level of unemployment - are Marx's predictions coming true for South Africa?

2086 words - 8 pages In this essay I will attempt to illustrate how the capital-intensive nature of the economy, the high levels of market concentration and the high level of unemployment in South Africa are both related yet at the same time have many other independent variables accounting for them. I will compare this with the Marxian concept of economics, and will start by examining exactly what Marx's beliefs were and, therefore, how they lead to his predictions

Man's true nature. A Paper over the destruction of man involving the books, Grendel by John Gardner, 1984 by George Orwell, and Lord of the Flies by William Golding

2626 words - 11 pages lifestyle. They destroy the forests, kill the animals as well as two boys, and make no effort to upkeep a rescue signal. The same concept runs through out these three novels. The true nature of man is destructive.To be truly destructive is to corrupt from the inside, out. Controlling actions will get results but mask true domination. Getting inside one's mind can permanently change actions, feelings, and thoughts. Under the power of the Party

Macbeth Essay Macbeth is basically a noble person who allows himself to be manipulated into performing acts which are contrary to his true nature. Discuss in detail the truth of this statement

668 words - 3 pages That Macbeth is basically a noble person who allows himself to be manipulated into performing acts, which are contrary to his true nature can be seen as a true statement at the beginning of the play when we are first introduced to Macbeth because he appears to be a noble general for the King's army. However, as the play progresses we see that he is an easily manipulated person who is willing to do whatever it takes to get what he wants.The most

Trace the moral development of Pip and discuss what "Great Expectations" reveals about the true nature of a gentleman

2836 words - 11 pages Pip, the young orphan boy from the forge was soon to become a young gentleman of great expectations. With a series of unpredictable events, unforeseen emotions, and a great deal of moral development we learn what it took for this young boy to learn how to be what he had always dreamed of becoming- a true gentleman.Never knowing who his parents were or what his true identity was we learn from the start that Pip has an ongoing voyage of self

Analyze the critique of the Catholic Church presented by Machiavelli in "The Prince" and show how Machiavelli reveals the true nature of the Church and devises ways to counter them

2033 words - 8 pages , in Chapter 11 there is an abrupt disruption when he backtracks to talk about Ecclesiastical principalities. This is glaringly out of place and there can only be one plausible explanation for it; that Ecclesiastical principalities cannot be judged by the strength listed in Chapter 10 and/or cannot be considered a true principality. Chapter 10 primarily focuses on physical fortification of cities when cornered by the enemy and gives the example

The Different Characteristics Viruses, Bacteria, and Prions

1477 words - 6 pages Viruses, bacteria, and prions are microscopic, living beings. All three can be found inside and outside hosts. Bacteria and viruses are more similar with each other than a prion with either one. None are even closely related, though. The three of them have different reproduction methods, structures, and choices of hosts. These are not the only differences by a long shot, but it is a start. A virus is an infectious agent. It is very small in

Understanding Viruses, Bacteria, and Prions

1323 words - 5 pages proteinaceous infectious agents; this name was just shortened into ‘prions.’ Unlike viruses and bacteria, prions do not contain any nucleic acid. Also, they do not have a true shape. A study shows that they appear as spheres when healthy and as cubes when unhealthy. Prions are a very specific type of protein which has the ability to attach itself to other, normal proteins to infect them. Even though they aren’t living organisms, prions are one of

Prion Diseases

2111 words - 9 pages nature of the prions and the disease, CJD receives a larger amount of attention. In fact, two nobel prizes have been won for the research of this illness. With all this attention, Prusiner believes that a therapy for prion diseases will be possible by the early 21st century. For example, in a presentation Prusiner gave at the University of Pennsylvania, he revealed two new drugs that might stop the spread of infectious prions. The drugs are

Similar Essays

Emerson's True Intention Of Nature Essay

706 words - 3 pages Lightning strikes, tornadoes destroy, rain floods, and earthquakes crumble. These are some of the disastrous, yet beautiful qualities of nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, "nature never wears a mean appearance" (Nature 346). In saying this, Emerson was describing his philosophy how nature never hurts people intentionally, and this is just one of the many philosophies that Emerson had. The fact that God's true intention for nature is to

The True Nature Of King Leopold's Congo

3894 words - 16 pages -American named George Washington Williams discovered for himself the true nature of Leopold's Congo. Williams' path to the Congo took a curved route; he was a former soldier who earned a theology graduate's degree from Howard University, was a newspaper writer and founder, as well as a former politician and historian (Hochschild, 102-105). After being introduced to Henry Shelton Sanford during his lobbying campaign in Washington, Williams himself

The True Nature Of Organic Foods

2028 words - 9 pages with symptomatic Campylobacter infection.” (Smith-Spangler, 2012, pp. 348-366). Another study also found that organic produce was at a higher risk of contamination with E. coli on organic farms that used manure for fertilization as compared to farms that do not. Walter J. Crinnion, professor and chair of the Environmental Medicine Program at the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, has a different opinion on the nature of the organic

Merchant Of Venice Essay: The True Nature Of Venetian Society

882 words - 4 pages trial scene reveals the true nature of Venetian society as insecure , hypocritical and vengeful.             Mercy is clearly of greatest importance to the Christians in this text. It is only mentioned in the trial scene by two characters--the Duke (3 times) and Portia, in her guise as the lawyer Balthazar, (10 times). Mercy is significantly never mentioned by Shylock, implying either