Tsarist Rule vs. Communist Regime in Russia
From 1856-1917, up until a communist takeover, the USSR had three
Tsarist rulers, Alexander II (the Reformer 1855-1881), Alexander III
(the reactionary Tsar 1881-1894) and Nicholas (1894-1917). After the
February Revolution of 1917, Lenin took control forcibly through the
Civil War, but died in 1924. After several years of fighting
opposition, Stalin took power in the late 1920's after antagonism from
Leon Trotsky. His murderous regime however ended in 1953 in a peaceful
Throughout the period of time that Russia was under the rule of the
Romanov dynasty, [C-300] the Tsars ruled by divine right. This made
them respectable and looked at as god like figures by the empire; it
was therefore the Church and religion of Russia which consolidated the
Tsars position as the 'father' of Russia. The autocratic monarchy of
Russia was unfair and unrepresentative of the Russian people, as the
majority did not have the right to vote, let alone its peasant class
accounting for almost eighty five percent of the total population.
This class lived in poverty, and were answerable to their landlords
and the Mirs, who would often use brutal measures to stabilise them.
Nicholas II introduced the October Manifesto, which labelled Russia as
a constitution, and the Tsar no longer had absolute power.
Contradicting the Manifesto, the Fundamental Laws would reinstate the
Tsar with absolute power. Nicholas II abdicated during World War One
in 1917 and his life was brought to an end in 1918.
After Nicholas' death, the Bolsheviks took control of Russia with
their Communist views. Following the Marxist view that 'â€¦religion is
the opium of the massesâ€¦' they wanted to establish a communist nation
which would be free of class divisions. The Karl Marx belief is
relevant to the differences on the two forms of government as the
Tsars relied on the church controlling the people and their beliefs
through brainwashing them with ideas of the Orthodox Church, in
comparison to the aims and beliefs of the communists. The aims of
Lenin being met when the communists took control, with a progress in
industry, even through the times of poor communications links within
the USSR. The War took millions from Russia who would never return,
leaving gaps in the factories at home. The main problem which the
communists were then faced with was the Civil War, in which the 'Reds
and Whites' fought as to who would direct the USSR. Stain succeeded
Lenin after his death in 1924, and is not branded as being the most
important person in the 20th Century.
To some degree, each of the RussiaTsars used central control as a way
of gaining power throughout the state. The Emancipation Edict of 1861
was the mechanism by which Alexander II freed all Russian serfs [one
third of the total...