Tsgafdrtdfgdfudr Essay

5441 words - 22 pages

RESUMO DE ECONOMIA

Resumo de economia

Parte 1 - Introdução

Capítulo 1 - 10 princípios da economia

Economia

Estudo de como a sociedade administra seus recursos escassos, como as pessoas tomam decisões, como interagem umas com as outras

Princípios

Como as pessoas tomam decisões

Tradeoffs - pessoas enfrentam tradeoffs

"Não existe almoço grátis"

Tradeoffs entre "armas e manteiga", entre meio ambiente e desenvolvimento, entre eficiência e equidade

Custo oportunidade - o custo de alguma coisa é aquilo de que você desiste para obtê-la

Comparação de custos e benefícios de possibilidades alternativas de ação

Utilidade marginal - pessoas racionais pensam na margem

Mudanças marginais: pequenos ajustes incrementais a um plano de ação

Ação: se benefícios marginais > custos marginais

Incentivos - pessoas reagem a incentivos

Alterações indiretas nos custos e benefícios

Como as pessoas interagem

Comércio - pode ser bom para todos

Comércio permite especialização na atividade em que se é melhor

Mercados - são geralmente uma boa maneira de organizar a atividade econômica

Economia de mercado: economia que aloca recursos por meio das decisões descentralizadas de muitas empresas e famílias quando estas interagem nos mercados de b&s

Preços são instrumentos com que a "mão invisível" conduz a atividade econômica e leva a resultados de mercado desejáveis

Impostos distorcem preços e, portanto, as decisões das empresas e famílias

Interferência governamental - às vezes, podem melhorar os resultados dos mercados

A "mão invisível" precisa que o governo a proteja: os mercados só funcionam bem quando os direitos de propriedade são garantidos

Promoção de eficiência (aumentar o bolo) e eqüidade (dividir o bolo)

Falha de mercado: quando o mercado não consegue, por si só, alocar os recursos de maneira eficiente, por causa de externalidades (ex.: poluição) ou poder de mercado (ex.: monopólio)

Como a economia funciona

Renda e produtividade - o padrão de vida de um país depende de sua produtividade (capacidade de produzir b&s)

Taxa de crescimento da produtividade determina a taxa crescimento da renda média

Instrumentos: educação, tecnologia, ferramentas

Inflação - preços sobem quando o governo emite moeda demais

Inflação: aumento no nível geral de preços da economia

Alta inflação impõe diversos custos à sociedade

Tradeoff entre inflação e desemprego - no curto prazo

moeda inflação desemprego

Curva de Phillips: mostra esse tradeoff

Adam Smith

1776: "A riqueza das nações"

Indivíduos tomam melhores decisões se deixados a agir por conta própria, sem interferência do governo base para a economia de mercado

Participantes são movidos por seus próprios interesses, e a mão invisível do mercado conduz...

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