Turing Notes Essay

2380 words - 10 pages

Computer Exam Study NotesUnit 1Hardware:Part of the computer that you can see or touch4 Categories of HardwareStorage: permanently stores data. Ex. Jump drive, hard drive, floppy diskMemory: temporally hold data/information that is currently runningVolatile: disappears when turned out RAMNon-volatile: ROMPeripherals: input/output devices. Ex. Mouse-input, speakers-output, touch screen monitor-bothCPU: Central processing unit. It is the brain of the computer, there are 3 partsControl unit (CU): the 'boss' or 'manager' of resourcesArithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): performs mathematical operationsOn-chip memorySoftware:The programs used to direct the operation of a computer, as well documentation giving instructions on how to use them (a set of instructions to control the hardware)Software 3 CategoriesApplication Software - helps people to accomplish certain tasksExample: word, excel, PowerPoint, games, etc.Systems Software - helps the computer to manage its own resourcesExample: Windows, Mac OS, LinuxProgramming Editors/Environments - allow users to create their own application or systems softwareExample: Turing, JavaFocus on Software:5 Operating Systems:UNIXLinuxMicrosoft WindowsDOSMac OSTwo tasks which the operating systems performAccepting input from the keyboardManaging input and output between the computer and external devicesEditor: The general name for the window in a programming environment that allows you to enter and change the programCompiler and Interpreter: Tools that change the program into the machine language that the computer can understandCompiler:Resides in storageTranslates entire code into 0s and 1s, saves it, then runs itA lot of time is spent analyzing and processing the codeProgram runs quicklyInterpreter:Resides in memoryTranslates one line of the program into 0s and 1s, runs it, then moves to the next line without savingLittle time is pent analyzing and processing the codeRuns more slowlyDebugger: used to locate and fix errorsSpecific Categories of Application Software:Computer Games: the most popular software applicationWord Processors: enables you to create, edit or save text documentsGraphics Packages: designed for creating and manipulating images rather than textVirtual Reality Software: programs that use computer generated images, text, sound to imitate real-world eventsPresentation Software: refers to an application that helps the user organize informationWeb Browsers: allows the user to access view and download text and graphics from the WWWDatabase Management Systems: help users store, organize and use numbers, text and other forms of dataSpreadsheets: help users store, organize and use numbers and text spread out in rows and columnsFocus on Hardware:Be able to label:Monitor, CD-ROM Drive, Ports, Microphone, Keyboard, Hard Drive, Expanison board, RAM, CPU, Speakers, Mouse, Modem, Printer and Diskette drivePrivacy Issues:Voluntarily divulging information:People submit their personally identifiable information to others...

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