December 5, 2017
The Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia are one of the greatest and yet one of the most mysterious civilizations in the world that amaze archaeologist as well as simple people. The Ancient Egypt was located in Northeastern Africa along the banks of the Nile River in the place today known as Egypt. While Mesopotamia was situated in West Asia between Tigris and Euphrates rivers, where Iraq, the eastern part of Syria, and Southeastern Turkey are located present days. Those one of the oldest civilizations on the Earth, the Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia share similarity in their social hierarchies; however, the Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia also had dissimilarity in how they treated women, and how they viewed afterlife.
Primarily, both the Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia share similarity in their social hierarchies. In Ancient Egypt, social hierarchy was like a pyramid. At the top resided kings or pharaohs. Priests, government officials, artisans, tradesmen, and soldiers followed after kings on the pyramid of social hierarchy, and the bottom were occupied by peasants. According to Wendy Christensen, at the top of social hierarchy in the Ancient Egypt were kings. Kings’ the main responsibility was to maintain well-being of the country, spiritually and materially. Moreover, kings were accountable for the prosperity of the land, affluence of the harvest, the annual inflow of the Nile, and daily rise of the Sun (Christensen 65). After kings come priests in the pyramid of hierarchy. Priests conducted religious and magical rituals for the dead, gods and goddesses. Those rituals contained offerings of food and drink, animal sacrifices, and magical spells (Christensen 68). Priests were followed by government officials. Viziers were kings’ government officials. They knew issues across the Ancient Egypt, and they reported them to kings. Viziers were right-hands of the kings; thus, they advised kings on regular basis on different issues (Christensen 69). Next, the middle class stands on the steps of social hierarchy. The middle class includes artisans, tradesmen, scribers, and professional soldiers. Referring to Christensen, they kneaded guilds and groups. Also, the middle class did not possess land; however, they often had personal wealth and belongings, and they heavily depended on their customers and clients (Christensen 70). At the very bottom of social hierarchy were slaves. Egypt slaves were serfs who were tied to the maters’ land. They were able to own land and animals. Yet, they possessed very little. Slaves worked in the fields and took care of their masters’ herds and flocks. Furthermore, while the Nile inundated fields, slaves did not labor on the fields because of the flood. Therefore, the government forced them to build royal tombs and temples (Christensen 74-75).
Similarly to the Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia had social hierarchy. Population of Mesopotamia was divided...