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Two Factor Theory Of Intelligence Vs. Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

774 words - 3 pages

Charles Spearman and Howard Gardner were very important psychologists that revolutionized the ideals of intellect. They both thought to test intellect of individuals, and in order to do that, they had to find out what intellect was amongst persons. They both very different theories, one being very simplistic, and another having many different aspects, and are still argued about and tested upon today. Controversy still surrounds the question of whether 'intelligence' is regarded as a single unit or as a many-sided collection of abilities.Charles Spearman was the English Psychologist who was one of the first to develop theories on intelligence. He founded the two-factor theory of intelligence by focusing on relationships. He found that people who excelled in one mental ability test tended to do well one others, and those who did poorly on one also did poorly on others. In this, he noted that all tests of mental ability are related and there must be some common variable that produces this positive connection. (Charles)Spearman used this concept and designed a technique of analysis to examine these patterns he found in the test scores. In this analysis he studied the intelligence of 24 students and concluded that there is a "general factor in all intellectual abilities", (G-Spot) referred to as the "g-spot" of intelligence. He believed that the g-factor had the ability view the relationships between things and manipulate those relationships, and in that must be used to solve all problems. The findings suggested that the "variations in test performances were mirrored by differences in brain activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region associated with memory, planning and goal-directed ability." (G-Spot)Howard Gardner, on the other hand, argues that there is no single intelligence, but instead proposed a theory of "multiple intelligences". He felt as though previous definitions of intelligences were to narrow and mental tests did not identify all the ways that an individual can excel. He viewed IQ test scores to be inclusive and that they did not predict academic outcomes or success in life. (Intelligence) Instead, he identified seven minimal intelligences, which were Linguistic ("sensitivity" to written of spoken languages, able to learn languages quickly), Logical-mathematical (Math skills and solve problems logically), Musical (skills in performance on composition of music), Bodily-kinesthetic (use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements), Spatial (recognize and use patterns), Interpersonal (ability to effectively work well with others), and Intrapersonal (capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's...

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