Type 2 DM Essay

770 words - 3 pages ✓ Expert Reviewed
VIEW DOCUMENT
Preview

The comparison of two drugs -the novel SGLT2 inhibitor with the current Sulfonylurea used in treating type 2 DM as add-on therapy to Metformin, showed some promising results. The up-titration of the dosage at 3 levels at weeks 8 and 16 were done to evaluate the tolerability and to observe the hypoglycemic events associated with each dosage. The pattern of decline in FBS, PLBS and HbA1c values were different for both SGLT2 inhibitor and Sulfonylurea. The SGLT2 inhibitor group showed a gradual fall in the values of FBS, PLBS and HbA1c till week8 and then had a rapid decrease in these values till week 24 and also during the maintenance period till week 60. Also it was observed that after week 8, as the dose level increased the efficacy was improved with respects to glycemic control but the hypoglycemic events also increased from 3% at week 8 to 7% at week 60.None of the hypoglycemic events noted had random blood sugar <60mg/dl and were promptly treated. Similarly, in the Sulfonylurea group, the FBS, PLBS and HbA1c decreased initially till week 24, but remained steady after that in the maintenance period. With increased level of dose, there was zero to minimal improvement in efficacy. This can be correlated to the vicious cycle of Sulfonylurea, where higher dosage leads to poor drug absorption and uncontrolled blood sugars4.Again, hypoglycemic episodes increased from 3% to 7% (from week 8 to week60) with random blood sugars below 60mg/dl.
Weight loss with SGLT2 was remarkable and showed significant BMI decline till week 24 and then stabilized during the maintenance period. On the other hand, group with Sulfonylurea had constant weight gain at every time-point during the study. This was one of the major drawbacks with Sulfonylurea. From safety standpoint, Sulfonylurea group did not have any major adverse events and had a stable serum creatinine throughout the study. SGLT2 inhibitor group raised some concerns regarding renal safety, since the serum creatinine value was increased at every time-point in the study.
SGLT2 inhibitor proved to have more benefits than Sulfonylurea in addition to Metformin in this 60 week comparison study. This would help the clinicians manage the non-eradicating epidemic of diabetes with more confidence of positive outcomes. The chronic diabetic sufferers would have good glycemic control with few medicines. Also, they will be benefitted indirectly, since adequately...

Find Another Essay On Type 2 DM

Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetic Coma

1741 words - 7 pages mmol / L two hours after taking 75 g glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). There are two types of DM; insulin dependent DM (IDDM or type 1) and non-insulin dependent DM (NIDDM or type 2) Type 1 is caused by the destruction of pancreatic b cell destruction, which can be predicted by the detection of the presence of antibodies (Abs) to islet cells, (Pitteloud, Philippe (2000)) insulin and glutamic acid dehydrogenase (GAD) (a...

Gerontologic Considerations of Diabetes Mellitus Essay

1852 words - 7 pages Camera, 2011.) The purpose of this paper is to explore the disease process of diabetes mellitus in the geriatric population. Pathology According to Lewis and associates, DM is a chronic disease that affects multiple body systems. For the purpose of this paper, only DM type 2 will be discussed based on the assumption that a majority of patients aged 60 years or older have this type. The primary defects of this disease consist of insulin resistance...

Factors Affecting Community Health

641 words - 3 pages The Health problem that I have identified in Northeast Bronx, New York, is Diabetes Mellitus (DM). DM results from the body’s inability to produce insulin (Type 1) or to respond appropriately to insulin (Type 2) or gestational diabetes (pregnancy). Insulin is a hormone, which is essential for glucose absorption by cells. Type 2 diabetes accounts for ninety to ninety five percent of all analysed cases. In 2001 it was the fifth prominent cause of...

Education

652 words - 3 pages expectancy of a diabetic patient is significantly decreased by at least 10 years. Furthermore, a diabetic patient will be 2-4 times more likely to obtain heart disease and stroke. DM is the leading cause for kidney failure and the number one cause for blindness (Adult Health II Notes on DM part 1). Kosti and Kanakari describe DM as “the scourge of modern times (p. 654).” The proper management of this disease by the patient could represent the number one...

Early Diabetes Impairs Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function Which Not Related To Oxidative Stress-Mediated Mechanism

960 words - 4 pages 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1. Animals and type 1 diabetic mouse model All the experimental protocols described in this study were approved by the Animal Care Committees of Juntendo University. Eight weeks old C57BL/6J mice (20 – 25 g) were used for the experiments. Diabetes (DM) were induced by injection intra-peritoneally of Streptozotocine (STZ, 50 mg/kg, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.5) for 5 consecutive days, as...

Study Regarding Alpinia nigra´s Towards Antidiabetic Potential

1130 words - 5 pages Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder of endocrine and occurs in individuals having either deficiency in insulin secretion or insulin action, or even both. This leads to abnormalities in the metabolism of foods rich in carbohydrate. The occurrence and morbidity related to type 2 DM continues to increase at an alarming rate and is expected to rise in the next 30 years or so (Andrade-Cetto et al., 2008). In long runs, DM leads to many...

Total Quality Management

1411 words - 6 pages the benchmark of 64 percent." (SSM Health Care Leading the Way, n.d., in the Employees Drive Success section, para. 2). SSMHC applied CQI to resolve its high employee turnover rate. SSMHC modified its benefits packages, approved a work from home option, and offered flexible hours to its employees. This project resulted decreasing of SSMHC's turnover rate from 23% to 13% (SSM Health Care Leading the Way, n.d.). SSMHC concern for quality health...

The Diagnosis Of Wolfram Syndrome

2524 words - 10 pages optic atrophy were absent in this patient.(14) Wolfram Syndrome: WS is characterized by constellation of features including juvenile onset type 1 non-immune mediated Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, Diabetes Insipidus and deafness. The described minimum diagnostic criteria are, presence of Optic Atrophy and DM. Presence of DM, Optic Atrophy and sensorineural hearing loss in this case, were suggestive of a diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome.(15...

Dementia And Educating Carers

1864 words - 7 pages the often neglected support services that are available to help them (Reinhard et al., 2008). Managing diabetes mellitus In addition to Margaret’s Dementia, she also has type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) as a comorbidity. DM is a disease caused by insufficiency or reduced effectiveness of endogenous insulin (Willacy & Colin, 2013). It is characterised by unstable metabolism, hyperglycaemia and sequelae predominantly disturbing the vasculature...

Angular Momentum, And Its Particular Properties , And How Angular Momentum Is Possessed.

1358 words - 5 pages unit of volume:? = lim ?m = dm?v?0 ?d dVdm = ? dV therefore: I = ? ?r2 dV."5Since every different shape has all of its mass in different places relative to the axis of rotation a different final, simplified formula results for every shape. The shapes that will be focused on (in presentation) are the: hoop of a cylindrical shell, solid cylinder or disk, and the rectangular plane, with formulas: ICM = MR2, ICM = 1/2 MR2...

What is Diabetes Melitus?

999 words - 4 pages Diabetes Mellitus(DM) • Is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar. • An estimated 227 to 285 million people had diabetes in 2010, with type 2 making up about 90% of the cases. This is equal to 3.3% of the population with equal rates in both women and men. In 2011 it resulted in 1.4 million deaths worldwide making it the 8th leading cause of death. • There are three types of Diabetes • Type 1 – Insulin dependent...

Other Type 2 DM Essays

PREVELANCE OF MASKED HYPERTENSION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS AND CORRELATION WITH HBA1C LEVELS

810 words - 3 pages normotensive DM [11]. Also, the prevalence of target organ damage was comparable in the MHT group with sustained hypertension in this study. Eguchi et al. reported MHT prevalence of 46.7% among 81 clinically normotensive Japanese diabetic persons. In this study, MHT was related to significantly increased incidence of silent brain infarcts and albuminuria [12]. In another cross-sectional study enrolling a total 135 normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes...

Rate Law And Mechanisms Essay

1312 words - 5 pages rate increases 4 times x = 2 (because 4 = 22)We then keep [A] constant while varying the concentration of the other species and use the same logic.EgExperiment [A] [B] Rate1 0.1 mol dm-3 0.1 mol dm-3 0.02 mol dm-3 s-12 0.2 mol dm-3 0.1 mol dm-3 0.04 mol dm-3 s-13 0.1 mol dm-3 0.2 mol dm-3 0.08 mol dm-3 s-1Analysis:Using Exp 1 & 2, [A] doubles while [B] is constant. The rate also doubles...

Compare and Contrast Pancreas Releated Disorders

547 words - 2 pages Type 2 would be Obesity or being overweight meaning that they lack of exercise, and unhealthy or poor nutrition. “Diabetes has long been linked to obesity and being overweight.” (WebMD, 2005-2008, http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/risk-factors-for-diabetes) Discuss pathophysiology of Type I and Type II DM Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, a triggering event, possibly a viral infection leading to production of autoantibodies that kills the bodies beta cells...

Can Diabetes Be Reversed Essay

1237 words - 5 pages . Diabetes is classified as diabetes type 1 , diabetes type 2 , gestational diabetes and diabetes due to other causes like endocrinopathies , infections , drugs etc. The most common amongst them is diabetes type 2 . Diabetes results if the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced in the body. Pathogenesis for type 1 DM includes genetic susceptibility, autoimmune response to beta cells and any...