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Types And Causes Of Renal Failure

1750 words - 7 pages

When a client arrives in the emergency room with complaints of asthenia, malaise, headache, weight gain, and decrease in urination, the key factor is urine retention. That clue alone may lead to a diagnosis of acute renal failure. Acute renal failure is the loss of the ability to filter, remove, and balance fluid and electrolytes in your body. There are three types of causes, all of which have a necessary plan for treatment.
Prerenal
Prerenal is the disruption that occurs before reaching the kidneys, and are usually caused by inadequate blood circulation. It prevents blood from reaching the kidneys to be filtered. According to Remedy’s Health Communities (2001), “Some notable causes of prerenal ARF are dehydration, heart failure, sepsis (severe infection), and severe blood loss.” Pre-existing medical conditions can also be associated and factor into the cause. For example, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries with fatty deposits), can reduce blood flow (Remedy's Health Communities, 2011). Not getting the proper amount of fluids may cause an ambulance and lead to a prerenal ARF. The use of diuretics can flush out large amounts of fluids, also dehydrating the patient and causing an imbalance in fluid and electrolytes. Patients who have heart conditions take diuretics to prevent other problems and that puts them at a higher risk for prerenal problems. A few other risk factors may include hemorrhage, cardiac dysrhythmias, anaphylaxis, and embolism.
Intrarenal/Intrinsic
This acute renal failure occurs within the kidneys. As said by Remedy’s Health Communites (2001), “Intrinsic ARF accounts for approximately 40% of the cases of acute renal failure.” Three classifications of intrarenal ARF are vascular disease, disease of tubules and interstitium, and acute tubular necrosis. A vascular disease called Glomerulonephritis, is commonly caused by streptococcal infection and that build up of virus on the kidneys glomerular membrane can cause the confusion within the enzymes. This will allow an enhanced protein filtration and the body will begin to lose large amounts of electrolytes, causing proteinuria or hematuria. Some other possible vascular diseases may include thrombosis from renal artery or vein destruction, and a low blood or platelet count. The kidneys filter 10% of all the blood in the body, which is why an inadequate amount of blood or platelets is a major factor. “Nearly 90% of intrarenal acute renal failure cases are caused by ischemia or toxins, both of which lead to acute tubular necrosis (ATN)” (Remedy's Health Communities, 2011).
Postrenal
Postrenal acute renal failure is an obstruction that prevents the urine from being released from the kidneys. “The blockage causes pressure to build up in all the renal nephrons (tubular filtering units that produce urine),” is according to Remedy’s Health Communities, (2001). All the pressure from the build-up causes the kidneys to shut down. The longer this issue continues to occur, the more damage...

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