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Types & Management Of Stress Essay

3622 words - 14 pages

INTRODUCTION Taking a final exam, having a serious accident, giving a formal speech, ending a significant relationship and missing a deadline can all be stressful. But different people have different feelings and reactions in response to the same event, some negative and some positive. Stress refers to the body?s psychological, emotional and physiological responses to any demand that is perceived as threatening to a person?s well-being. These are natural changes that prepare a person to cope with stressors which are threatening environmental conditions, either by confronting them (fight) or by avoiding them (flight).Think of how you would react to seeing an automobile speeding straight at you as you were crossing an intersection. Your emotional reaction would be fear which would cause you to psychologically experience increased tension, anxiety and alertness brought on by hormones released from the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. These hormonal changes would then cause physiological increases in your metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, muscle tension, and pupil dilation to prepare you to cope with the threatening situation. These same reactions might occur when you are faced with non-physical stressors like giving a speech, making a deadline, or resolving a disagreement, when the threat is to your self-esteem or relationship with others.The degree of stress experienced depends on several factors. First, the demand must be perceived (people must be aware that it exists) as threatening (having the potential to hurt them if they do not react appropriately). Second, the threat must be to something that is important to people (has the potential to substantially affect their wellbeing). Finally, people experiencing the threatening demand must be uncertain about the outcome (not sure if they can deal with it effectively).DEFINITIONS STRESS ?Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.? STRESSOR ?A stressor is any psychological or physical factor which places excessive demand upon the individual.? ENSTRESS ?It is that level of stress that has a favourable impact on the productivity of an individual.? DISTRESS ?It is that level of stress that has an unfavourable impact on the productivity of an individual.? The General Adaptation Syndrome Research shows that the usual response to stressful events that continued for some time follows a fairly consistent pattern known as ?General Adaptation Syndrome (G.A.S)?. The GAS refers to the defensive reaction design to help a person cope with any environmental demand perceived as threatening. The stressor could be an illness, extremely high job demands and extreme temperature, an insult or a deadline. The following diagram illustrates: Alarm This is the alarm stage of GAS in which the body mobilises to meet the...

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