The styles of parenting/childrearing are as unique and individualized as is the number of people caring for children. However, there are four primary styles that have been identified as most common among American families according to psychologist Diane Baumrind and later expanded on Eleanor Maccoby, and John Martin. Style was determined according to ratings of responsiveness and caregiver demands (expectations). The styles are: Permissive, Authoritative and Authoritarian and uninvolved.
Permissive caregiving is a style of childrearing that is identified by two key traits: nurturing and reluctance to impose limits or boundaries on a child. Permissive caregivers tend to want to be a friend or pal and not an authority figure. Permissive caregivers attempt to develop and shape a child with love, nurturing and the belief that a child has the right to make their own choices regardless of potential outcome. Permissiveness allows a broad range of self-regulation. This can be complicated as caregivers interact in a friendly non-authoritarian manner. Children are essentially left to form their own ideas and opinions as to what is good for them. This theory believes expectations are: the child will self-regulate to the norms and maturity of an adult. This is not always the case. Children cared for with this style are often ill equipped to make positive or informed decisions when faced with moral, ethical or appropriate choices.
Children raised in a Permissive style are at higher risk of: Self-centeredness, inability to show compassion or concern for others. Permissively raised children tend to be undisciplined, question authority and generally are non-compliant in a group setting. Permissive children are unable to adapt to routine, authority or acknowledge social graces and policies. This results in social out casting and inability to form, nurture and maintain relationships. Cognitively this can affect this population’s academic success due to disorganization, unwillingness to follow directions or be productive with assigned work. Permissive caregivers nurture and expect little in return. This is noted in on the Baumrind’s scale as high in responsiveness and low in demands or expectations.
Authoritarian caregiving is termed by Baumrind as a “harsh, rigid and emotional climate” with little input or considerations from the child’s perspective. Authoritarian caregiving is oppressive. This style of caregiving offers no latitude for free will, free thought or self-expression. This style of caregiving is similar to prison guard; the child is given little or no options and held to a high standard set forth by the ruler/caregiver. This style of caregiving is not a preferred method as it is linked to dysfunction in early childhood, adolescence and adulthood. According to The Positive Parenting Centere some of the outcomes of Authoritarian Caregiving are: children are more likely to have problems with communication, self-expression. These children tend to...