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Types Of Democratic Governmental Systems: Presidencial And Parliamentary Systems

1402 words - 6 pages

For many years, politicians have argued about the preferences of two types of democratic governmental systems, presidential systems and parliamentary systems. Firstly this paper will give a brief theoretical background and then analyse the merits and demerits of both systems, and will conclude that the presidential system functions as a more effective and desirable governmental system. Political researchers such as Juan Linz, Arend Lijphart, Stephan Haggard, and Matthew McCubbins, have argued that parliamentary systems are more effective, and they lead to a more stable democracy. But political scholars such as Matthew Shugart, Scott Mainwaring, Bradford Wilson, and Peter Schramm disagree and ...view middle of the document...

a) separation of powers vs. responsible government
The principle of separation of powers firstly was introduced by Aristotle in the history of Political Thought. In the theory of Aristotle, the form of government envisages three types: monarchy, aristocracy, and the Republic. According to Aristotle, if the supreme power of the state government is in the hands of one person, it is the monarchy; If in the hands of a small community of people it is the aristocracy, and in the hands of a large community of people, the Republic is concerned. According to Aristotle, there are three powers. These are legislative, executive and judicial powers. The first of these powers determine government affairs and regulations. Second power force the implementation of the decisions taken and, third power solves any dispute arising from the implementation of decisions. The best state must be set of these three forces. Then this principle is proposed by levelers during the revolution in XVII century. By John Lock this principle is explained comprehensively for the first time .
Today, when saying the theory of separation of powers firstly, Montesquieu comes to mind. This theory can be summarized like that: “experience has shown that, if there is not any barrier , ruler can violate the freedoms . Constitution has to establish a situation in which there is a power against each power, power should prevent the violations of other power. If it does not, the competence will be abused”. In the society biggest fear is that if the citizen afraid of the government. Easy way to prevent this fear is the separation of legislative from the executive branch.
The separation of powers in a democracy is to prevent abuse of power and to safeguard freedom for all. There is not strict separation of powers in the Parliamentary type. Executive branch is not separated from the legislative branch. The ministers are also members of the legislature, but in the Parliamentary system, government is responsible to the legislature. But in the Presidential type, the President and his ministers are not responsible to the legislature. In the Parliamentary system there is a principle of responsible government. Responsible government is the system in which there is a combination of political power rather than the separation of powers.
In my viewpoint the state where the executive is separated from the legislative activates more effectively. Because each has the completely different competence and for effective governance executive should be independent. This independence, of course, should not be absolute. Constitution of the USA defines the limitations of the three Institutes: executive, legislative and judiciary. Limitation is for example, as I mentioned above the president can be withdrawn by the parliament through impeachment. To me if the president is the head of the state it should not be dependent, because he/she expresses belonging of all citizens to one, unit state, and he embodies the...

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