Types Of Fluids Essay

1143 words - 5 pages

In this world, most materials that are known to man are classified to be in either solids, liquids, or gases states. However, liquids and gases can also be classified into one common state which is fluid state or fluids (Smits, 2000). Fluids is one of the most important elements in our lives. The water we drink, the air that we breathe, the rivers that flows, the oil that we use are all fluids. Fluids, as mentioned by Munson, Young, Okiishi, and Huebsch (2010), is defined as “a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress of any magnitude” (p. 4). Fluids can also be described as a component that constantly undergoes physical changes due to shear force which is a ...view middle of the document...

Specific weight is different from mass density because specific weight varies for different materials at different points on the Earth (Douglas et al., 2005). Douglas et al. (2005) said that specific weight of materials varies at different points on the Earth due to the influence of the gravitational acceleration, g at the specific point.
The third type of density is the relative density or specific gravity. Relative density is denoted by the Greek symbol s (sigma) and it does not have any units because according to Douglas et al. (2005), relative density is defined as “the ratio of the mass density of a substance to some standard mass density” (p. 11). The standard mass density used is usually mass density of water at 4 °C at atmospheric temperature which is 1000 kg/m3 and since the ratio of two similar quantities produces a pure number, therefore relative density have no units (Douglas et al., 2005). The similarities of all three types of density is that it is influenced by the temperature and pressure experienced by the fluids however the differences in pressure and temperature usually only cause minimal effect on the fluids’ density (Munson, Young, Okiishi, & Huebsch, 2010). The density of fluids can be said to be inversely proportional to temperature because when the temperature increases, the density decreases. On the other hand, density is directly proportional to pressure since as temperature increases, the density also increases (refer to Table 1 and Table 2 in Appendix).
Viscosity is the second most important property of fluids. Viscosity, according to Janna (1993), is the measure of the fluids’ resistance against an applied shear stress. Massey and Ward-Smith (2012) further defined viscosity as the fluid property that “offer resistance to any force tending to cause one layer to move over another” (p. 21). In other word, viscosity are the repelling force that is exerted by the fluid which is in the opposed direction to the shear force, parallel to the surface and measured in units of Newton-second per unit area (Ns/m2) (Massey & Ward-Smith, 2012; Smits, 2000). According to Munson, Young, Okiishi, and Huebsch (2010), viscosity describes the “fluidity” of the fluid and unlike density, viscosity is divided into two types which are dynamic viscosity or absolute viscosity and kinematic viscosity. According to Massey and Ward-Smith (2012),...

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