Society is defined as a form of social interaction that has an element of cultural and social organization involved, and members in the particular society often shares the similar culture value. Society is identified by their cultural attribute and social institutions that produce each of society. According to the father of the sociology, Emile Durkheim, the social structure which composed the society together, is bound by the collective consciousness, which is defined as a body of belief common to a community or society. Everyone in this world belongs to a specific society that makes them different from each other. For an example, the Malay society is different from the Chinese society in ...view middle of the document...
They are similar to foraging societies in terms of living which are they also nomadic. In this society, animals are used to do hard works and this create a material excessive and this material excessive allow some individual to emerge into some other activities such as creating crafts, pottery, and so on.
The horticultural society starts to develop a permanent settlements and village compared to foraging and pastoral societies and they also start to worship and believe in a deity as their creator. The technology that used in this society is hand tools such as hoe in order to enrich the land and therefore create occupation for instance, farmer.
An agricultural society is also known as society of slavery where it shows a large disparity of social inequalities. This society has a large scale of farming due to their dependence on technology of wheels and use of metals that contribute to their large and complex economic system. Examples of society that involved in this society are Pygmies of Central Africa, Inca Empire of Peru, and American South (Andersen & Taylor, 2011).
The industrial society is the second type of society that had begun since 250 years ago (Kottak, 2008) and the era of Industrial Revolution took place. During this time, the machines and some others advance technologies are used to produce and distribute the good and the services and also, science start to growth with the invention of the steam engine in England that helps to power the locomotives, factories, and also the dynamos that leads to the era of modernization. Furthermore, the development in science also contributes to the success in farming technique such as, crop rotation and harvesting.
Industrial societies are highly depending on differences of labor forces and meticulous use of resources and technology and somehow it drives to the development of gender inequality where the works at the factories and mills are paid on the wage- basis but unfortunately, household labor remained unpaid. This resulting in, “gender inequality start to widen their gaps as women are treated unequal in term of wages as men are considered as the primary breadwinner”, Tilly & Scott emphasis on the inequality between women and men wages pay during Industrial Revolution (as cited in Andersen & Taylor, 2011).
In contrast to pre- industrial societies, the industrial societies are highly productive economically, and people are starting to immigrate and the process of urbanization took place where they started to move from village to a place where the...