There is no doubt that energy is one of life’s essentials. In today’s life, requirements of energy for daily activities are gradually increasing thus this result in more energy generations are needed. Energy is generated by a rotating instrument called turbine. Cengel and Cimbala (2010) implied that the turbine is a rotating device that transmutes machine-driven work from a gyratory shaft into a useful power. Turbine is used extensively in power generation to supply electricity in large industry and home use. There are three main types of turbines which are wind, steam, and gas turbine (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
First type of turbine is the gas turbine. It is referred as combustion turbine to transform fuel into a valuable energy in the form of mechanical revolving shaft or an aircraft’s high velocity thrust. A combustion turbine comprises of a gas generator segment and power conversion region. The generator segment consists of a compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine, excerpting adequate power to drive the compressor. Consequently, this results in high temperature and pressure exiting the turbine outlet (Bathie, 1996). Gas turbine is categorised into two distinct groups: frame type heavy-duty gas turbine and turboprop engine.
According to Bathie (1996), the frame entities of gas turbine also referred as an industrial heavy-duty turbine, the largest power harness device entities ranging from 3 MW to 480MW in a simple gas cycle with efficiency's rating from 30 – 46%. The design of the frame-typed gas turbine consists of heavy-wall splitting cases on level centerlines, cover bearings, a wide dimension of the diameter for ignition, wide frontal zone and section of a thick aerofoil of blades and stators. The frame unit gas turbine consists of both axial-flow turbine and compressor. The compressor is using 15-17 stage axial-stream with multiple circular-can shape combustors and are connected with each other by cross-over tubes. The cross-over tubes facilitate the flow of flame from the combustor canister to each and every chamber while ensuring the equilibrium of pressure in all combustor compartment (Boyce, 2002). The frame type heavy-duty applications are utilized by electrical industries to generate and distribute power to major cities and households.
Turboprop engine utilises a reduction gear to drive jet propeller and provides propulsive thrust (Airplane flying handbook, 2004). The engine produces a sound efficiency output of the propeller at a velocity of 800 kilometres per hour and has a lower frontal zone, lightweight and reduced vibration and noise of a jet engine. The turboprop comprises of a diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, reduction gear, propeller and an exhaust nozzle. The jet engine produces constant power at the same elevated altitudes and velocities beneath sea-level and during take-off because as the speed increases, the ram effect also increases (Ganesan, 1999). Turboprop engine is used in civil and...